Michelle Murphy

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Vagal (hindbrain) neural crest cells migrate rostrocaudally in the gut to establish the enteric nervous system. Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its receptor(s), and endothelin-3 (ET-3) and its receptor, are crucial for enteric nervous system development. Mutations interrupting either of these signaling pathways cause aganglionosis in the gut,(More)
We present evidence that human peripheral blood lymphocytes, free of contaminating monocytes, rapidly produce high levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) when stimulated with phorbol diester and calcium ionophore, and lower but significant levels of TNF when stimulated with mitogens. These two types of inducers act preferentially on T cells, both CD4+ and(More)
We have shown that lymphocytes stimulated by PHA produce colony-forming unit of granulocyte/monocyte (CFU-GM)-stimulating and -inhibiting activities, IFN-gamma, and lymphotoxin (LT). IFN-gamma is necessary for inhibition of CFU-GM by PHA-conditioned medium (CM), as shown by experiments in which removal of IFN-gamma from PHA-CM abrogated inhibition. However,(More)
Commensal gut bacteria impact the host immune system and can influence disease processes in several organs, including the brain. However, it remains unclear whether the microbiota has an impact on the outcome of acute brain injury. Here we show that antibiotic-induced alterations in the intestinal flora reduce ischemic brain injury in mice, an effect(More)
We characterize the natural killer (NK) cell colony-inhibiting activity (CIA) produced in supernatants from cultures of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) with NK-sensitive target cell lines, and study its relationship with NK cell-derived cytotoxic factor (NKCF). Using monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for NK cells or other lymphocyte populations,(More)
We show that the cytotoxins tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or lymphotoxin (LT), at concentrations of approximately 10(-11) M induce monocytic differentiation of human myeloid cell lines. After 5 d of culture in the presence of rTNF and LT, a significant proportion of the myeloid cell lines express monocyte differentiation antigens and ANAE activity, and become(More)
UNLABELLED The scavenger receptor CD36 is a critical factor initiating ischemic brain injury, but the cell type(s) expressing CD36 and responsible for its harmful effects remain unknown. Using bone marrow (BM) chimeras subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we found that CD36(-/-) mice transplanted with wild-type (WT) BM (WT→CD36(-/-))(More)
A key feature of the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia is the brain infiltration of blood monocytes. There are two main monocyte subsets in the mouse blood: CCR2+Ly6Chi “inflammatory” monocytes involved in acute inflammation, and CX3CR1+Ly6Clo “patrolling” monocytes, which may play a role in repair processes. We hypothesized that CCR2+Ly6Chi(More)
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