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BACKGROUND Recent epidemiological studies suggest that short sleep duration may be associated with the development of obesity from childhood to adulthood. OBJECTIVES To assess whether the evidence supports the presence of a relationship between short sleep duration and obesity at different ages, and to obtain an estimate of the risk. METHODS We(More)
Common variants of TCF7L2, encoding a β-cell-expressed transcription factor, are strongly associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined this association using both prospective and case-control designs. A total of 2,676 healthy European white middle-aged men from the prospective NPHSII (158 developed T2D over 15 years surveillance)(More)
Aims To assess the relationship between duration of sleep and morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and total cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and results We performed a systematic search of publications using MEDLINE (1966-2009), EMBASE (from 1980), the Cochrane Library, and manual searches without language restrictions.(More)
BACKGROUND Increasing evidence suggests an association between both short and long duration of habitual sleep with adverse health outcomes. OBJECTIVES To assess whether the population longitudinal evidence supports the presence of a relationship between duration of sleep and all-cause mortality, to investigate both short and long sleep duration and to(More)
The authors examined sociodemographic, lifestyle, and comorbidity factors that could confound or mediate U-shaped associations between sleep duration and health in 6,472 United Kingdom adults from the Whitehall II Study (1997-1999) and 3,027 US adults from the Western New York Health Study (1996-2001). Cross-sectional associations between short (<6 hours)(More)
N4-oxidation of sulfonamides has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiosyncratic reactions to these antimicrobials. In vitro toxicity assays employing mononuclear leukocytes as target cells have shown that the toxicity of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine (SMX-HA) is inhibited by exogenous glutathione, suggesting that conjugation with glutathione is an(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between habitual sleep disturbances and the incidence of type 2 diabetes and to obtain an estimate of the risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a systematic search of publications using MEDLINE (1955-April 2009), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library and manual searches without language restrictions. We included(More)
Insulin secretion and clearance were studied in 2 groups of 7 normal subjects who each received 25, 50, and 100 g of glucose either orally or intravenously (iv) on separate occasions. Insulin secretion rates were calculated during a 1-h base line and for 5 h after glucose administration from a two-compartmental analysis of peripheral C-peptide(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Although sleep curtailment has become widespread in industrialised societies, little work has examined the effects on mortality of change in sleep duration. We investigated associations of sleep duration and change in sleep duration with all-cause, cardiovascular, and non-cardiovascular mortality. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. Data are(More)
Cross-sectional evidence suggests associations between sleep duration and levels of the inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. This longitudinal study uses data from the London-based Whitehall II study to examine whether changes in sleep duration are associated with average levels of inflammation from 2 measures 5 years apart. Sleep(More)