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BACKGROUND Recent epidemiological studies suggest that short sleep duration may be associated with the development of obesity from childhood to adulthood. OBJECTIVES To assess whether the evidence supports the presence of a relationship between short sleep duration and obesity at different ages, and to obtain an estimate of the risk. METHODS We(More)
Aims To assess the relationship between duration of sleep and morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and total cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and results We performed a systematic search of publications using MEDLINE (1966-2009), EMBASE (from 1980), the Cochrane Library, and manual searches without language restrictions.(More)
Despite the discovery of many ions and molecules that activate the Ca2+ receptor, there are no known ligands that block this receptor. Reported here are the pharmacodynamic properties of a small molecule, NPS 2143, which acts as an antagonist at the Ca2+ receptor. This compound blocked (IC50 of 43 nM) increases in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations [Ca2+]i(More)
BACKGROUND Increasing evidence suggests an association between both short and long duration of habitual sleep with adverse health outcomes. OBJECTIVES To assess whether the population longitudinal evidence supports the presence of a relationship between duration of sleep and all-cause mortality, to investigate both short and long sleep duration and to(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Although sleep curtailment has become widespread in industrialised societies, little work has examined the effects on mortality of change in sleep duration. We investigated associations of sleep duration and change in sleep duration with all-cause, cardiovascular, and non-cardiovascular mortality. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. Data are(More)
Common variants of TCF7L2, encoding a beta-cell-expressed transcription factor, are strongly associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined this association using both prospective and case-control designs. A total of 2,676 healthy European white middle-aged men from the prospective NPHSII (158 developed T2D over 15 years surveillance)(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between habitual sleep disturbances and the incidence of type 2 diabetes and to obtain an estimate of the risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a systematic search of publications using MEDLINE (1955-April 2009), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library and manual searches without language restrictions. We included(More)
UNLABELLED Evidence is emerging that disturbances in sleep and sleep disorders play a role in the morbidity of chronic conditions. However, the relationship between sleep processes, disease development, disease progression and disease management is often unclear or understudied. Numerous common medical conditions can have an affect on sleep. For example,(More)
The authors examined sociodemographic, lifestyle, and comorbidity factors that could confound or mediate U-shaped associations between sleep duration and health in 6,472 United Kingdom adults from the Whitehall II Study (1997-1999) and 3,027 US adults from the Western New York Health Study (1996-2001). Cross-sectional associations between short (<6 hours)(More)
To find out whether arene oxide metabolites of phenytoin and a genetic defect in arene oxide detoxification contribute to susceptibility to phenytoin-induced birth defects, lymphocytes from 24 children exposed to phenytoin throughout gestation and from their families were challenged in a blind protocol with phenytoin metabolites generated by a murine(More)