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  • M Schaper
  • 1993
A database was developed for chemicals whose sensory-irritating properties had been investigated using a previously described animal bioassay. In this bioassay, mice were exposed to an airborne chemical, and changes in their respiratory pattern were determined. For each chemical tested, the concentration capable of producing a 50% decrease in respiratory(More)
A system was developed for exposure of unanesthetized mice to airborne chemicals and for continuous measurement of their breathing pattern prior to, during and following exposure. By measuring inspiratory and expiratory airflows (VI and VE), and integration with time to yield tidal volume (VT), we obtained characteristic modifications to the normal(More)
The pattern and timing of a normal breath in unanesthetized mice was analyzed from measurement of inspiratory and expiratory airflows (VI and VE). Airflow was measured via a differential pressure transducer, attached to a pneumotachograph, which itself was attached to a body plethysmograph into which a mouse was placed. The analog voltage from the(More)
We used a database of 145 volatile organic chemicals for which the sensory irritation potency (RD50) has been reported in mice. Chemicals were first separated into two groups: nonreactive and reactive, using Ferguson's rule. This rule suggests that nonreactive chemicals induce their effect via a physical ( p) mechanism (i.e., weak forces or interactions(More)
Using a previously developed bioassay, the sensory and pulmonary irritating properties of a group of 10 aerosolized machining fluids were evaluated in mice. Single, 3-hr inhalation exposures were conducted with the fluids at exposure concentrations ranging from 20 to 2000 mg/m3. The results have shown that all 10 were capable of inducing sensory and(More)
Guinea pigs inhaling 10% CO2, 19% O2, and 71 N2 increase their tidal volume (VT) by a factor of 2 to 3 and their respiratory frequency (f) by a factor of 1.2 to 1.5 above their normal values while breathing room air. While exposing guinea pigs to 10% CO2, a variety of aerosols can be added to determine how they modify the normal ventilatory response to this(More)
Methyl isocyanate (MIC) was evaluated for sensory and pulmonary irritation in mice. MIC was found to be both a potent sensory and pulmonary irritant in this species. From these results, a safe level of exposure for a period of 8 hr was estimated to be about 0.02 ppm for humans. Guinea pigs were also exposed to MIC for a single 3-hr exposure at a(More)
Mice were exposed to thermal decomposition products (TDP) released from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polypropylene-polyethylene copolymer (CP), polypropylene homopolymer (HP), or plasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC). These resins were heated in a temperature programmable furnace, at and above workplace processing temperatures. LC50 and RD50 values(More)
Methyl isocyanate (MIC) was tested for its potency as a sensory irritant and as a pulmonary irritant in mice. To evaluate sensory irritation, animals were exposed to MIC at concentrations between 0.5 and 7.6 ppm for a period of 90 min. A characteristic reflex decrease in respiratory rate indicating sensory irritation was observed. The concentration evoking(More)
This article describes the possibility of estimating whether or not a mixture of nonreactive volatile organic chemicals (NRVOC) is likely to elicit complaints of sensory irritation in humans. For this estimation we rely on: a) the sensory irritating potency of individual NRVOC can be estimated from a variety of physicochemical properties of these chemicals,(More)