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Aptamers continue to receive interest as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of diseases, including cancer. In order to determine whether aptamers might eventually prove to be as useful as other clinical biopolymers, such as antibodies, we selected aptamers against an important clinical target, human epidermal growth factor receptor (hEGFR). The(More)
Chronic exposure to sunlight causes skin cancer in humans, yet little is known about how habitual exposure to low doses of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) affects DNA damage in the skin. We treated Skh-1 hairless mice with daily doses of suberythemal UVB for 40 days and analyzed the amount and distribution of DNA photodamage using RIAs and immunofluorescence(More)
Studies in diverse organisms have revealed a surprising depth to the evolutionary conservation of genetic modules. For example, a systematic analysis of such conserved modules has recently shown that genes in yeast that maintain cell walls have been repurposed in vertebrates to regulate vein and artery growth. We reasoned that by analyzing this particular(More)
We have developed a selection scheme to generate nucleic acid sequences that recognize and directly internalize into mammalian cells without the aid of conventional delivery methods. To demonstrate the generality of the technology, two independent selections with different starting pools were performed against distinct target cells. Each selection yielded a(More)
On average, mutations are deleterious to proteins. Mutations conferring new function to a protein often come at the expense of protein folding or stability, reducing overall activity. Over the years, a panel of T7 RNA polymerases have been designed or evolved to accept nucleotides with modified ribose moieties. These modified RNAs have proven useful,(More)
The Xiphophorus hybrid fish model is an important resource for investigating the genetics and molecular biology of melanoma. Consistent with studies using human melanoma cell lines, the Xiphophorus melanoma cell line PSM, survives the lethal effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) radiation much better than a cell line derived from normal fish tissue. In(More)
The ability to detect and monitor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biological samples is an enabling research and clinical tool. We have developed a surprising, inexpensive primer design method that provides exquisite discrimination between SNPs. The field of DNA computation is largely reliant on using so-called toeholds to initiate strand(More)
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