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Aptamers continue to receive interest as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of diseases, including cancer. In order to determine whether aptamers might eventually prove to be as useful as other clinical biopolymers, such as antibodies, we selected aptamers against an important clinical target, human epidermal growth factor receptor (hEGFR). The(More)
Mammalian skin is vulnerable to the photocarcinogenic and photoaging effects of solar UV radiation and defends itself using a variety of photoprotective responses including epidermal thickening, tanning and the induction of repair and antiradical systems. We treated Skh-1 albino hairless mice for 60 days with ultraviolet-A (UVA) or ultraviolet-B (UVB)(More)
Chronic exposure to sunlight causes skin cancer in humans, yet little is known about how habitual exposure to low doses of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) affects DNA damage in the skin. We treated Skh-1 hairless mice with daily doses of suberythemal UVB for 40 days and analyzed the amount and distribution of DNA photodamage using RIAs and immunofluorescence(More)
aptamer size can be modulated trivially by coupling additional nucleotides to the original structure. Using the PSMA aptamer, we found that an increase from 15 kDa to ~31 kDa substantially reduced image quality, with a further drop upon increasing to ~58 kDa (Supplementary Fig. 6). Thus, although Ries et al.1 state that Fab fragments (~50 kDa) could in(More)
The distribution and persistence of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers were investigated in mouse skin after chronic and acute exposures to ultraviolet-B radiation. We found that DNA damage accumulated in response to chronic irradiation and persisted in a unique set of epidermal cells located at the basal layer. Treatment with a tumor promoter caused the heavily(More)
Selected hybridization in the fish genus Xiphophorus has been used for many years to study the genetics of malignant melanoma. Because DNA damage caused by ultraviolet radiation is implicated in the etiology of sunlight-induced melanoma, the heritability of mechanisms that mitigate DNA damage is a matter of some interest. We examined nucleotide excision(More)
Studies in diverse organisms have revealed a surprising depth to the evolutionary conservation of genetic modules. For example, a systematic analysis of such conserved modules has recently shown that genes in yeast that maintain cell walls have been repurposed in vertebrates to regulate vein and artery growth. We reasoned that by analyzing this particular(More)
The genus Xiphophorus is an important model for investigating the etiology and genetics of sunlight-induced melanoma as well as other cancers. We investigated the role DNA damage plays in tumorigenesis in Xiphophorus using a variety of immunological techniques to examine the induction, distribution, and repair of the major photoproducts in DNA after(More)
It has previously been shown that chronic exposure to low fluences of ultraviolet B radiation reduced DNA repair capacity in mouse skin. In this study we now extend this to examine the concentration dependence and tissue dependence of this phenomenon. We found that (6-4) photoproducts were repaired considerably faster than cyclobutane dimers and that the(More)
We have developed a selection scheme to generate nucleic acid sequences that recognize and directly internalize into mammalian cells without the aid of conventional delivery methods. To demonstrate the generality of the technology, two independent selections with different starting pools were performed against distinct target cells. Each selection yielded a(More)