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With the completion of a single unified classification, the Systema Porifera (SP) and subsequent development of an online species database, the World Porifera Database (WPD), we are now equipped to provide a first comprehensive picture of the global biodiversity of the Porifera. An introductory overview of the four classes of the Porifera is followed by a(More)
Class Demospongiae (phylum Porifera) encompasses most of sponges' morphological and species diversity. It also represents one of the most challenging and understudied groups in animal phylogenetics, with many higher-level relationships still being unresolved. Among the unanswered questions are the most fundamental, including those about the monophyly of the(More)
Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of healthcare-associated diarrhoea in Europe and North America. During infection, C. difficile produces two key virulence determinants, toxin A and toxin B. Experiments with purified toxins have indicated that toxin A alone is able to evoke the symptoms of C. difficile infection, but toxin B is unable to(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of multicellular animals (Metazoa) is typically a small ( approximately 16 kbp), circular-mapping molecule that encodes 37 tightly packed genes. The structures of mtDNA-encoded transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are usually highly unorthodox, and proteins are translated with multiple deviations from the standard(More)
Exercise for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is gaining popularity among pediatric physical therapists as an intervention choice. Exercise in water appeals to children with CP because of the unique quality of buoyancy of water that reduces joint loading and impact, and decreases the negative influences of poor balance and poor postural control. In this(More)
BACKGROUND The approximately 350 demosponge species that have been described from Antarctica represent a faunistic component distinct from that of neighboring regions. Sponges provide structure to the Antarctic benthos and refuge to other invertebrates, and can be dominant in some communities. Despite the importance of sponges in the Antarctic subtidal(More)
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Clostridium difficile infection is the main cause of healthcare-acquired diarrhea in the developed world. In addition to the main virulence factors toxin A and B, epidemic, PCR Ribotype 027 strains, such as R20291, produce a third toxin, CDT. To develop effective medical countermeasures, it is important to understand the importance of each toxin.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the duration of delays in treatment initiation when involuntary patients apply for a review of a finding of treatment incapacity and to estimate the cost of keeping patients hospitalized without treatment in these circumstances. METHOD Using a computerized database and written records, we identified all patients at 2 psychiatric(More)
Porifera have long been a reservoir for the discovery of bioactive compounds and drug discovery. Most research in the area has focused on sponges from tropical and temperate waters, but more recently the focus has shifted to the less accessible colder waters of the Antarctic and, to a lesser extent, the Arctic. The Antarctic region in particular has been a(More)