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Prior to the introduction of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus from humans into pigs, four phylogenetic clusters (α-, β-, γ- and δ) of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene from H1 influenza viruses could be found in US swine. Information regarding the antigenic relatedness of the H1 viruses was lacking due to the dynamic and variable nature of swine lineage H1. We(More)
BACKGROUND A novel A/H1N1 was identified in the human population in North America in April 2009. The gene constellation of the virus was a combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before been identified in swine or other species. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to (i) evaluate the clinical(More)
Poor growth before birth increases the risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and impairs insulin secretion relative to sensitivity. We investigated the effects of intrauterine growth restriction in sheep on insulin secretion, beta-cell mass, and function from before birth to young adulthood and its molecular basis. Pancreas was collected(More)
Poor growth before birth is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity later in life, increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes. The tissue sites at which insulin resistance first develops after intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and its molecular basis, are unclear. We have therefore characterized the effects of placental restriction (PR), a major(More)
BACKGROUND IUGR increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in later life, due to reduced insulin sensitivity and impaired adaptation of insulin secretion. In IUGR rats, development of T2DM can be prevented by neonatal administration of the GLP-1 analogue exendin-4. We therefore investigated effects of neonatal exendin-4 administration on insulin(More)
The emergence of the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus in humans and subsequent discovery that it was of swine influenza virus lineages raised concern over the safety of pork. Pigs experimentally infected with pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus developed respiratory disease; however, there was no evidence for systemic disease to suggest that pork from(More)
Plasticity of insulin secretion is essential to maintain the action of insulin during insulin resistance and to prevent diabetes. Investigation of the plasticity of insulin secretion and its regulation is challenging, and the objective of this study was to develop a novel large-animal-based model. The effect of chronic moderate hyperglycaemia on the(More)
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