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We address the problem of large-scale fine-grained visual categorization, describing new methods we have used to produce an online field guide to 500 North American bird species. We focus on the challenges raised when such a system is asked to distinguish between highly similar species of birds. First, we introduce "one-vs-most classifiers." By eliminating(More)
In the laboratory rat, inhalation (30 s) of high (> 70%) CO2 concentrations resulted in short-term (1-3 min) anesthesia, followed by a prolonged (up to 60 min) mild antinociception. Exposure to 100% CO2 resulted in significant thermal (hot-plate, 52 degrees, and tail-flick) and mechanical (tail-pinch, 886 g force) antinociception. Control animals, placed in(More)
Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) occurs when blood and/or oxygen delivery to the brain is compromised. HI injuries can occur in infants born prematurely (<37 weeks gestational age) or at very low birth weight (<1500 g), as well as in term infants with birth complications. In both preterm and term HI populations, brain injury is associated with subsequent behavioral(More)
Electrical stimulation of the preoptic area, lateral hypothalamus or dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) has produced sexual behavioral responses in 11 male rhesus monkeys. At a short latency following the onset of each train of stimulation, the stimulated males would mount estrogen-treated, receptive females. Quantitative measures of the elicited(More)
BACKGROUND Hypoglycemia (HG) is common in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) neonates. In normally grown (NG) neonatal rats, acute HG causes neuronal injury in the brain; the cerebral cortex is more vulnerable than the hippocampus (HPC). We hypothesized that the IUGR brain is less vulnerable to HG-induced injury while preserving regional variation in(More)
Hypoxia ischemia (HI; reduced oxygen and/or blood flow to the brain) is one of the most common injuries among preterm infants and term infants with birth complications. Both populations show cognitive/behavioral deficits, including impairments in sensory, learning/memory, and attention domains. Clinical data suggests a sex difference in HI outcomes, with(More)
A radioimmunoassay for serum testosterone which does not require chromatographic separation was used to measure the diurnal variations in intact and orchidecomized males and intact and ovariectomized females. The intact male rhesus monkey shows a distinctive diurnal variation in serum levels of testosterone characterized by lower values during the day and a(More)
Most researchers in the field of neural plasticity are familiar with the "Kennard Principle," which purports a positive relationship between age at brain injury and severity of subsequent deficits (plateauing in adulthood). As an example, a child with left hemispherectomy can recover seemingly normal language, while an adult with focal injury to sub-regions(More)
We present the design of a video event recounting system that takes YouTube-like videos, and identifies a minimal set of video segments and textual keyword descriptions in order to convince a user, in a time efficient manner, that the video contains an instance of a user-specificed human activity. The system is based on extensive user studies that have lead(More)
Hypoxia-ischemia (HI; concurrent oxygen/blood deficiency) and associated encephalopathy represent a common cause of neurological injury in premature/low-birth-weight infants and term infants with birth complications. Resulting behavioral impairments include cognitive and/or sensory processing deficits, as well as language disabilities, and clinical evidence(More)