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Returns on international equities are characterized by jumps; moreover, these jumps tend to occur at the same time across countries leading to systemic risk. In this paper, we evaluate whether systemic risk reduces substantially the gains from international diversification. First, in order to capture these stylized facts, we develop a model of international(More)
Growing clinical, neuro-imaging and post-mortem data have implicated the cerebellum as playing an important role in the pathogenesis of essential tremor. Aside from a modest reduction of Purkinje cells in some post-mortem studies, Purkinje cell axonal swellings (torpedoes) are present to a greater degree in essential tremor cases than controls. Yet a(More)
The American Jobs Creation Act (AJCA) significantly lowered US firms' tax cost when accessing their unrepatriated foreign earnings. Using this temporary shock to the cost of internal financing, we examine the role of capital constraints in firms' investment decisions. Controlling for the capacity to repatriate foreign earnings under the AJCA, we find that a(More)
Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802(More)
OBJECTIVE In a recent randomized controlled trial, lowering blood glucose levels to 80-110 mg/dl improved clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. In that study, the insulin infusion protocol (IIP) used to normalize blood glucose levels provided valuable guidelines for adjusting insulin therapy. In our hands, however, ongoing expert supervision was(More)
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), also known as common baldness, is characterized by a marked decrease in hair follicle size, which could be related to the loss of hair follicle stem or progenitor cells. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed bald and non-bald scalp from AGA individuals for the presence of hair follicle stem and progenitor cells. Cells expressing(More)
Valproate (VPA) can suppress absence and other seizures, but its precise mechanisms of action are not completely understood. We investigated whether VPA influences the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), an endogenous anticonvulsant. Chronic VPA administration to young rats (300-600 mg.kg(-1).d(-1) in divided doses over 4 d) resulted in a 30-50% increase in(More)
Little is known about how human genetic variation affects the responses to environmental stimuli in the context of complex diseases. Experimental and computational approaches were applied to determine the effects of genetic variation on the induction of pathogen-responsive genes in human dendritic cells. We identified 121 common genetic variants associated(More)
Hypothalamic POMC neurons regulate energy balance via interactions with brain melanocortin receptors (MC-Rs). POMC neurons express the MC3-R which can function as an inhibitory autoreceptor in vitro. We now demonstrate that central activation of MC3-R with ICV infusion of the specific MC3-R agonist, [D-Trp(8)]-gamma-MSH, transiently suppresses hypothalamic(More)
T lymphocyte activation by antigen conditions adaptive immune responses and immunopathologies, but we know little about its variation in humans and its genetic or environmental roots. We analyzed gene expression in CD4(+) T cells during unbiased activation or in T helper 17 (T(H)17) conditions from 348 healthy participants representing European, Asian, and(More)