Learn More
Proteins of the innate immune system can act as natural inhibitors of influenza virus, limiting growth and spread of the virus in the early stages of infection before the induction of adaptive immune responses. In this study, we identify the long pentraxin PTX3 as a potent innate inhibitor of influenza viruses both in vitro and in vivo. Human and murine(More)
The clinical response to influenza infection ranges from mild disease to severe pneumonia and it remains unclear whether the inflammatory response to infection is protective or pathogenic. We have defined a novel role for neutrophils in ameliorating lung injury during influenza infection, thereby limiting development of severe disease. Infection of(More)
Neutrophils have been implicated in both protective and pathological responses following influenza virus infections. We have used mAb 1A8 (anti-Ly6G) to specifically deplete LyG6(high) neutrophils and induce neutropenia in mice infected with virus strains known to differ in virulence. Mice were also treated with mAb RB6-8C5 (anti-Ly6C/G or anti-Gr-1), a mAb(More)
Oligosaccharides on the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase of influenza A virus (IAV) are a target for recognition by lectins of the innate immune system, including soluble surfactant protein-D and the macrophage mannose receptor on airway macrophages. Glycans attached to the head of H1 subtype of IAV differ markedly in number and location. A reverse(More)
Type I interferons (IFNs) are an important family of cytokines that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens, in cancer and inflammatory diseases. While the regulation and role of protein-coding genes involved in these responses are well characterized, the role of non-coding microRNAs in the IFN responses is less developed. We review the(More)
In the absence of a viable 'knockout' mouse, researchers have relied extensively on monoclonal antibody (mAb) RB6-8C5 [anti-granulocyte receptor 1 (Gr-1)] to deplete neutrophils in murine models of inflammation and infection. Using an intranasal model of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, we demonstrate that mAb RB6-8C5 also binds to(More)
Seasonal influenza A viruses (IAV) originate from pandemic IAV and have undergone changes in antigenic structure, including addition of glycans to the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein. The viral HA is the major target recognized by neutralizing antibodies and glycans have been proposed to shield antigenic sites on HA, thereby promoting virus survival in the(More)
Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis and avoids elimination by the immune system of the infected host. The commensal bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus has been suggested to exert beneficial effects as a supplement during H. pylori eradication therapy. In the present study, we applied whole-genome microarray analysis to compare the immune responses(More)
Collectins in airway fluids and membrane-associated lectins such as the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) recognize mannose-rich glycans on the envelope glycoproteins of influenza A viruses. In this study, we used a reverse genetic approach to examine the role of particular N-linked glycosylation sites on the hemagglutinin (HA) of A/Beijing/353/89 (Beij/89,(More)
It is widely recognized that sialic acid (SA) can mediate attachment of influenza virus to the cell surface, and yet the specific receptors that mediate virus entry are not known. For many viruses, a definitive demonstration of receptor function has been achieved when nonpermissive cells are rendered susceptible to infection following transfection of the(More)