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To evaluate the survival of Salmonella on raw almond surfaces, whole almond kernels were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 collected from a 24-h broth culture or by scraping cells from an agar lawn. Kernels inoculated with lawn-collected cells to 8, 5, 3, and 1 log CFU per almond after a 24-h drying period were stored for 161 days at(More)
Clostridium perfringens strains (type A) isolated from an integrated poultry operation were subtyped using repetitive-element PCR with Dt primers. Isolates were obtained from fecal, egg shell, fluff, and carcass rinse samples as part of a previously reported temporally linked epidemiological survey. A total of 48 isolates of C. perfringens were obtained(More)
Propylene oxide (PPO) is commonly used to reduce microbial populations in U.S. bulk raw almonds, but the process has not been validated for reduction of foodborne pathogens. The reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 inoculated onto almonds was evaluated after exposure to a standard commercial PPO treatment. Almonds were inoculated with(More)
The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May(More)
Agricultural water may contact fresh produce during irrigation and/or when crop protection sprays (e.g., cooling to prevent sunburn, frost protection, and agrochemical mixtures) are applied. This document provides a framework for designing research studies that would add to our understanding of preharvest microbial food safety hazards and control measures(More)
This project was undertaken to relate what is known about the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 under laboratory conditions and integrate this information to what is known regarding the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak in the context of a quantitative microbial risk assessment. The risk model explicitly assumes that all contamination arises from(More)
Data on the prevalence and populations of pathogens in individual foods are critical to the development of product-specific quantitative microbial risk assessments. An outbreak of salmonellosis associated with the consumption of raw almonds in 2000 to 2001 provided an opportunity to evaluate the levels of Salmonella in the recalled product. Duplicate 100-g(More)
Pathogens occurring in particulate foods may be unevenly distributed, which may impact interpretation of most-probable-number (MPN) values. The MPN analysis of Salmonella in naturally contaminated raw almonds was conducted using two sample preparation methods. Raw almond kernels (3,698 samples) and inshell almonds (455 samples) were collected from almond(More)
In 2001, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 was isolated from drag swabs of 17 61-ha almond orchards on three farms linked to an outbreak of salmonellosis associated with consumption of raw almonds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 in one of the almond orchards associated with the(More)
Recent outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with raw almonds have raised awareness of this food as a vector for foodborne illness. We performed a quantitative assessment of the risk of contracting salmonellosis from consumption of raw almonds, accounting for factors that become important after almonds reach the processor. We estimated the risk associated(More)