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Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in chronic pain states in which the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. To begin to explore possible mechanisms, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide confined to fine primary afferent terminals in laminae I and II in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and implicated in pain transmission, was(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently results in dysesthesias that have remained refractory to clinical treatments despite a variety of interventions. The failure of therapeutic strategies to treat dysesthesias after SCI is due to the lack of attention given to mechanisms that elicit chronic pain following SCI. An overview of the literature with respect to(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in variable motor recoveries and chronic central pain syndromes develop in the majority of SCI patients. To provide a basis for further studies, we report a new rodent model of chronic central pain following spinal cord trauma. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 10) were hemisectioned at T13 and were tested both preoperatively(More)
The U.S. Constitution vests Congress with the power to raise revenue and borrow money. Those funds may only be drawn from the Treasury in consequence of appropriations made by law. The Constitution, however, is largely silent with respect to the President's role in the budget process. Instead, the current executive budget process is largely the result of(More)
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA, as amended) was signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. ACA is a comprehensive overhaul of the health care system that includes such provisions as the expansion of eligibility for Medicaid, amendments to Medicare that are intended to reduce its growth, an individual mandate for the(More)
Since its inception, Congress has used commemorative legislation to express public gratitude for distinguished contributions; dramatize the virtues of individuals, groups, and causes; and perpetuate the remembrance of significant events. During the past two centuries, commemoratives have become an integral part of the American political tradition. They have(More)
The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, as amended and later codified in the U.S. Code, requires the President to submit a consolidated federal budget to Congress toward the beginning of each regular session of Congress. Under 31 U.S.C. Section 1105(a), the President must submit the budget—which contains budgetary proposals, projections, and other required(More)
This report provides a primer on some of the fundamental aspects of the security clearance process, using a " Frequently Asked Questions " format. A security clearance is a determination that an individual—whether a direct federal employee or a private contractor performing work for the government—is eligible for access to classified national security(More)
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