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At least five muscarinic receptor genes have been cloned and expressed. Muscarinic receptors act via activation of G proteins: m1, m3 and m5 muscarinic receptors couple to stimulate phospholipase C, while m2 and m4 muscarinic receptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase. This review describes the localization, pharmacology and function of the five muscarinic receptor(More)
1. Microinjection of selective antibodies into superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurones has identified the G-protein alpha-subunits mediating muscarinic receptor inhibition of M-type K+ current (IK(M)) and alpha-adrenoceptor inhibition of Ca2+ current (ICa). 2. Antibodies specific for G alpha q/11, but not those for G alpha o, reduced M-current inhibition(More)
Bradykinin (BK) is a peptide mediator released in inflammation that potently excites sympathetic neurons. We have studied the mechanism of this excitation in dissociated rat sympathetic neurons and found that at low nanomolar (EC50 = 0.9 nM) concentrations, BK inhibited the M-type K+ current IK(M). Studies with the selective antagonist Hoe140 revealed that(More)
Cannabinoid receptor ligands irreversibly inhibited peak voltage-activated Ca currents (44%) in NG108-15 cells; this inhibition was Pertussis toxin-sensitive. Inhibition was largely due to a reduction in the omega-conotoxin sensitive portion of high-voltage activated (HVA) current, although there was also a significant decrease in low-voltage activated(More)
One postsynaptic action of the transmitter acetylcholine in sympathetic ganglia is to inhibit somatic N-type Ca2+ currents: this reduces Ca2+-activated K+ currents and facilitates high-frequency spiking. Previous experiments on rat superior cervical ganglion neurons have revealed two distinct pathways for this inhibitory action: a rapid, voltage-dependent(More)
1. G protein-regulated inward rectifier K+ (GIRK) channels were over-expressed in dissociated rat superior cervical sympathetic (SCG) neurones by co-transfecting green fluorescent protein (GFP)-, GIRK1- and GIRK2-expressing plasmids using the biolistic technique. Membrane currents were subsequently recorded with whole-cell patch electrodes. 2.(More)
Acetylcholine (ACh) can inhibit calcium currents (ICa) in nerve cells by activating muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChR). There are several different genetic subtypes of mAChR. It is not known which subtype(s) are responsible for ICa inhibition. To resolve this issue, we measured ICa inhibition by ACh with patch-clamp recording, by using Ba2+ as charge carrier,(More)
The role of protein kinase C (PKC) activation in mediating muscarinic depolarization was assessed in the rat superior cervical ganglion. Staurosporine, an inhibitor of PKC, abolished a depolarization elicited by the direct PKC activator beta-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, but had little effect on the response to muscarine. Thus, activation of PKC may not be an(More)