Michelle Alfa

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BACKGROUND C. difficle spores in the environment of patients with C. difficile associated disease (CDAD) are difficult to eliminate. Bleach (5000 ppm) has been advocated as an effective disinfectant for the environmental surfaces of patients with CDAD. Few alternatives to bleach for non-outbreak conditions have been evaluated in controlled healthcare(More)
BACKGROUND The increased severity of disease associated with the NAP1 strain of Clostridium difficile has been attributed to mutations to the tcdC gene which codes for a negative regulator of toxin production. To assess the role of hyper-production of Toxins A and B in clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile, two NAP1-related and five NAP1 non-related(More)
silent and, when not associated with outbreaks, most likely neglected by local physicians.cleotide sequences and phylogeny of the nucleocapsid gene of Oropouche virus. al. The Acre Project: the epidemiology of malaria and arthropod-borne virus infections in a rural Amazonian population. LTM. Duplex reverse transcription-PCR followed by nested PCR assays for(More)
BACKGROUND An ultraviolet visible marker (UVM) was used to assess the cleaning compliance of housekeeping staff for toilets in a tertiary healthcare setting. METHODS The UVM was applied to the toilets of patients who were on isolation precautions due to Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) as well as for patients who were not on isolation(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to perform simulated-use testing as well as a clinical study to assess the efficacy of the EVOTECH Endoscope Cleaner and Reprocessor (ECR) cleaning for flexible colonoscopes, duodenoscopes, gastroscopes and bronchoscopes. The main aim was to determine if the cleaning achieved using the ECR was at least equivalent(More)
BACKGROUND Flexible endoscopes undergo repeated rounds of patient-use and reprocessing. Some evidence indicates that there is an accumulation or build-up of organic material that occurs over time in endoscope channels. This "buildup biofilm" (BBF) develops as a result of cyclical exposure to wet and dry phases during usage and reprocessing. This study(More)
Correction The original submission of this manuscript included a citation of one of the authors' patents [1]. During the review process, we were alerted to the existence of another relevant patent. As is the norm, it was our intention that all references to any patents should be removed from the manuscript and replaced by the relevant original peer reviewed(More)
An explant adult foreskin cell culture (FS2-3) was compared with human lung carcinoma cell culture (A549) with regard to the ability of Haemophilus ducreyi to produce a cytopathic effect. The survival of H. ducreyi for up to 26 days in FS2-3 cells was far greater than in any previously described in-vitro culture system. H. ducreyi survived for up to 7 days(More)
The objective of this study was to validate the relative light unit (RLU) cut-off of adequate cleaning of flexible colonoscopes for an ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate) test kit that used a sponge channel collection method. This was a simulated-use study. The instrument channel segment of a flexible colonoscope was soiled with ATS (artificial test soil)(More)
A series of discrete models were developed to study the development of cyclic reprocessing buildup (CRB) on medical devices, and to explore the effect of cleaning efficacy and type of disinfection on the removal of this CRB. A cellular automata (CA) model was used to simulate the development of CRB, including microbial replication and production of(More)
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