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Normal brain development during childhood is a complex and dynamic process for which detailed scientific information is lacking. MRI techniques, combined with methods for advanced image analysis, offer the potential to begin to construct a quantitative map of normal paediatric brain development in vivo. In this study we utilize volumetric analysis of high(More)
Brain dysfunction is the most important sequelae of the fragile X (FMR-1) mutation, the most common heritable cause of developmental disability. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitative morphometry, we have compared the neuroanatomy of 51 individuals with an FMR-1 mutation with matched controls and showed that subjects with an FMR-1 mutation(More)
PURPOSE A new multistep, volumetric-based tissue segmentation algorithm that results in fuzzy (or probabilistic) voxel description is described. This algorithm is designed to accurately segment gray matter, white matter, and CSF and can be applied to both single channel high resolution and multispectral (multiecho) MR images. METHOD The reliability and(More)
Evidence from numerous structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies has converged to implicate mesial temporal lobe structures in the pathophysiology of several developmental and psychiatric disorders. Efforts to integrate the results of these studies are challenged, however, by the lack of consistency, detail and precision in published protocols for(More)
BACKGROUND Functional brain imaging studies of major depression have consistently revealed hypometabolism or hypoperfusion in specific regions of the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. Studies of cognitive functioning in major depression have suggested that some but not all subjects exhibit cognitive deficits that are consistent with frontal-subcortical(More)
OBJECTIVE It has been proposed that 50%-75% of the efficacy of antidepressant medication represents the placebo effect, since many depressed patients improve when treated with either medication or placebo. This study examined brain function in depressed subjects receiving either active medication or placebo and sought to determine whether quantitative(More)
Previous studies have shown that changes in brain function precede clinical response to antidepressant medications. Here we examined quantitative EEG (QEEG) absolute and relative power and a new measure, cordance, for detecting regional changes associated with treatment response. Fifty-one adults with unipolar depression completed treatment trials using(More)
Seventeen females with the fragile X mutation and 17 non-fragile X females group-matched on age (range 4 to 27 years), IQ (range 34 to 126), and socioeconomic status were compared on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed, revised) criteria for selected psychiatric disorders. Additional comparisons were made on level of social(More)
BACKGROUND Depressed patients have a variety of brain structural alterations, the most common being atrophy and deep white-matter lesions. Alterations in brain function also are common, particularly regional decreases in cerebral metabolism and perfusion. METHOD We review here the evidence that alterations in brain structure and function may explain some(More)
Prior investigations have reported that changes in the prefrontal electroencephalogram (EEG) precede symptom improvement from antidepressant medications, and could serve as a biomarker of treatment outcome in major depressive disorder (MDD). A new physiologically defined region of interest (ROI), overlying the midline and right frontal (MRF) cortical area,(More)