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The story of child survival over the past two decades is one of significant progress and unfinished business. There is much to celebrate. More children now survive their fifth birthday than ever before ― the global number of under-five deaths has fallen from around 12 million in 1990 to an estimated 6.9 million in 2011. All regions have shown steady(More)
Previous studies indicate that the distribution of corticoamygdaloid neurons in the rat prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) cortices overlaps with the distribution of neurons projecting to the contralateral medial prefrontal cortex (MPC), insular cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, and dorsal medulla. In view of the poorly differentiated cytoarchitecture of PL(More)
Cigarette advertising and promotion have been shown to influence smoking in young persons, but the powerful effect of the mass media on behavior can also be used to promote health. Several states have earmarked a portion of their cigarette excise tax revenues to fund mass media antismoking campaigns, which have been effective in reducing cigarette(More)
Although many children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorer (ADHD) are described as "clumsy," there is relatively little research on problems in motor development in this population. We used a survey method to assess retrospectively developmental histories of 25 children with ADHD and 27 control children (ages 8-15 years). Children with ADHD(More)
Placing animals in an unfamiliar environment triggers at least two major reactions: (1) a heightened state of arousal, fear, or distress and (2) a sharp increase in information processing as the animal attempts to learn about its new environment. These changes could have a profound effect on the way in which the animal reacts to the types of extraneous(More)
The effects of naloxone on social play and feeding behaviors of postweanling and adult Long-Evans hooded rats were studied. Administration of 1.0, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg naloxone reduced play in a dose-related fashion. The effects of a 5.0-mg/kg dose of naloxone could be detected at least 3 h after administration, in terms of both a decrease in social behavior(More)
Rats 16 to 60 days of age were placed in an unfamiliar environment either alone or in the presence of an anesthetized lactating dam. Rats of all ages show a dramatic increase in fear, as measured by heart rate (HR), when placed alone in an unfamiliar environment. Adult rats, however, show a rapid decline in heart rate during the course of a 90-min session,(More)
The effects of large and small housing environments as well as naloxone on social play (as defined by pinning behavior) in isolated postweanling male rats were investigated. Animals housed in small cages played significantly more than those housed in larger cages. This effect was not observed when cage size was reversed. Administration of 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0(More)
In two experiments the effects of the presence of an anesthetized lactating dam on the developing rat's response to a series of mildly painful shocks was examined. Both cardiac and behavioral responses to the shock stimulus were recorded. In the first experiment animals were tested at either 16, 20, or 24 days of age. The presence of the anesthetized dam(More)
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