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The motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) causes profound muscle weakness that most often leads to early death. At autopsy, SMA is characterized by loss of motor neurons and muscle atrophy, but the initial cellular events that precipitate motor unit dysfunction and loss remain poorly characterized. Here, we examined the function and(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is the most common neurological complication of HIV infection. Currently, the pathogenesis of HIV-SN is unknown. Because there is no convincing evidence of neuronal infection, HIV neurotoxicity is likely to be effected either by secreted viral proteins such as the envelope(More)
Clinically relevant peripheral neuropathies (such as diabetic and human immunodeficiency virus sensory neuropathies) are characterized by distal axonal degeneration, rather than neuronal death. Here, we describe a novel, endogenous pathway that prevents axonal degeneration. We show that in response to axonal injury, periaxonal Schwann cells release(More)
Genetic engineering of mice has become a major tool in understanding the roles of individual molecules in regeneration of nerves, and will play an increasing role in the future. Mice are in many ways well suited to assessment both of nerve regeneration after axotomy and of collateral sprouting of intact fibers into areas of denervation. However, mouse(More)
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