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OBJECTIVE To develop and perform an initial validation of a damage index for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS A list of items considered to reflect damage in SLE was generated through a nominal group process. A consensus as to which items to be included in an index was reached, together with rules for ascertainment. Each center submitted 2(More)
OBJECTIVE The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) group revised and validated the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) classification criteria in order to improve clinical relevance, meet stringent methodology requirements, and incorporate new knowledge regarding the immunology of SLE. METHODS(More)
Genome-wide association studies have recently identified at least 15 susceptibility loci for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To confirm additional risk loci, we selected SNPs from 2,466 regions that showed nominal evidence of association to SLE (P < 0.05) in a genome-wide study and genotyped them in an independent sample of 1,963 cases and 4,329(More)
BACKGROUND Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically heterogeneous disease in which the risk of disease is influenced by complex genetic and environmental contributions. Alleles of HLA-DRB1, IRF5, and STAT4 are established susceptibility genes; there is strong evidence for the existence of additional risk loci. METHODS We genotyped more than(More)
The TNFAIP3 (tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3) gene encodes a ubiquitin editing enzyme, A20, that restricts NF-kappaB-dependent signaling and prevents inflammation. We show that three independent SNPs in the TNFAIP3 region (rs13192841, rs2230926 and rs6922466) are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) among individuals of European(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by activation of the type I interferon (IFN) pathway. Here we convincingly replicate association of the IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) rs2004640 T allele with SLE in four independent case-control cohorts (P = 4.4 x 10(-16)) and by family-based transmission disequilibrium test(More)
BACKGROUND Systemic lupus erythematosus is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease that is associated with B-cell hyperactivity, autoantibodies, and increased concentrations of B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS). The efficacy and safety of the fully human monoclonal antibody belimumab (BLyS-specific inhibitor) was assessed in patients with active systemic lupus(More)
Systematic genome-wide studies to map genomic regions associated with human diseases are becoming more practical. Increasingly, efforts will be focused on the identification of the specific functional variants responsible for the disease. The challenges of identifying causal variants include the need for complete ascertainment of genetic variants and the(More)
BACKGROUND Since anecdotal series and small, prospective, controlled trials suggest that mycophenolate mofetil may be effective for treating lupus nephritis, larger trials are desirable. METHODS We conducted a 24-week randomized, open-label, noninferiority trial comparing oral mycophenolate mofetil (initial dose, 1000 mg per day, increased to 3000 mg per(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine mortality rates in the largest systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cohort ever assembled. METHODS Our sample was a multisite international SLE cohort (23 centers, 9,547 patients). Deaths were ascertained by vital statistics registry linkage. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR; ratio of deaths observed to deaths expected) estimates were(More)