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Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is widely distributed throughout the brain and has been shown to mediate numerous endocrine and behavioral responses to stressors. During acute ethanol withdrawal, CRF release is increased in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and there is evidence to suggest that this activation of amygdala CRF systems may(More)
Numerous studies have demonstrated that drugs of abuse activate the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, and it is widely held that this activation contributes to the motivational and positive reinforcing properties of these substances. However, there is evidence that endogenous opioid systems within this brain reward circuit also play a role in drug(More)
The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is known to modulate feeding, obesity, and ethanol intake. Neuropeptide-Y (NPY), which is released endogenously by neurons projecting from the arcuate nucleus to the PVN, is one of the most potent stimulants of feeding behavior known. The role of NPY in the PVN on ethanol self-administration is unknown.(More)
PURPOSE We describe the preclinical pharmacology and antitumor activity of GDC-0068, a novel highly selective ATP-competitive pan-Akt inhibitor currently in clinical trials for the treatment of human cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN The effect of GDC-0068 on Akt signaling was characterized using specific biomarkers of the Akt pathway, and response to GDC-0068(More)
Recent achievements in the development of multitargeted molecular inhibitors necessitate a better understanding of the contribution of activity against individual targets to their efficacy. SU11248, a small-molecule inhibitor targeting class III/V receptor tyrosine kinases, including the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vascular endothelial growth(More)
RATIONALE The neurobiological systems that mediate the discriminative stimulus effects of self-administered drugs are largely unknown. The present study examined the discriminative stimulus effects of self-administered ethanol. METHODS Rats were trained to discriminate ethanol (1 g/kg, IP) from saline on a two-lever drug discrimination task with sucrose(More)
The low rate of approval of novel anti-cancer agents underscores the need for better preclinical models of therapeutic response as neither xenografts nor early-generation genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) reliably predict human clinical outcomes. Whereas recent, sporadic GEMMs emulate many aspects of their human disease counterpart more closely,(More)
Although mitogen-activated protein (MAP)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) inhibition is predicted to cause cell death by stabilization of the proapoptotic BH3-only protein BIM, the induction of apoptosis is often modest. To determine if addition of a Bcl-2 family inhibitor could increase the efficacy of a MEK inhibitor, we evaluated(More)
RATIONALE Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays an integral role in mediating stress responses and anxiety. However, little is known regarding the role of CRF in ethanol consumption, a behavior often associated with stress and anxiety in humans. OBJECTIVE The present study sought to determine the role of CRF in ethanol consumption, locomotor(More)
Resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy can occur via several potential mechanisms. Unexpectedly, recent studies showed that short-term inhibition of either VEGF or VEGFR enhanced tumour invasiveness and metastatic spread in preclinical models. In an effort to evaluate the translational relevance of these findings, we examined the consequences of long-term(More)