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Hyperglycemia in the critically ill is a well-known phenomenon, even in those without known diabetes. The stress response is due to a complex interplay between counter-regulatory hormones, cytokines, and changes in insulin sensitivity. Illness/infection, overfeeding, medications (e.g., corticosteroids), insufficient insulin, and/or volume depletion can be(More)
OBJECTIVE We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in improving glycemic control and reducing hypoglycemia compared to self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG). METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, Web of Science, and Scopus for randomized trials of adults and children(More)
Incretins such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are gut-derived hormones that stimulate insulin secretion and suppress glucagon secretion, thus playing a key role in glucose homeostasis. While incretin mimetics and enhancers are approved for treatment of outpatients with diabetes, evidence is only starting to accumulate regarding the therapeutic potential(More)
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