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We report the first experimental demonstration of time-reversal focusing with electromagnetic waves. An antenna transmits a 1-micros electromagnetic pulse at a central frequency of 2.45 GHz in a high-Q cavity. Another antenna records the strongly reverberated signal. The time-reversed wave is built and transmitted back by the same antenna acting now as a(More)
For the last 10 years, interest has grown in low frequency shear waves that propagate in the human body. However, the generation of shear waves by acoustic vibrators is a relatively complex problem, and the directivity patterns of shear waves produced by the usual vibrators are more complicated than those obtained for longitudinal ultrasonic transducers. To(More)
To focus ultrasonic waves in an unknown inhomogeneous medium using a phased array, one has to calculate the optimal set of signals to be applied on the transducers of the array. In the case of time-reversal mirrors, one assumes that a source is available at the focus, providing the Green's function of this point. In this paper, the robustness of this(More)
A sparse phased array is specially designed for non-invasive ultrasound transskull brain therapy. The array is made of 200 single elements corresponding to a new generation of high power transducers developed in collaboration with Imasonic (Besançon, France). Each element has a surface of 0.5 cm2 and works at 0.9 MHz central frequency with a maximum 20 W(More)
Gas nuclei exist naturally in living bodies. Their activation initiates cavitation activity, and is possible using short ultrasonic excitations of high amplitude. However, little is known about the nuclei population in vivo, and therefore about the rarefaction pressure required to form bubbles in tissue. A novel method dedicated to in vivo investigations(More)
For pt.II see ibid., vol.39, no.5, p.567-78 (1992). A theoretical model for time-reversal cavities to optimize focusing in homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is described. The concept of the cavity can be understood as the most realistic approximation to an exact three-dimensional (3-D) time-reversal of ultrasonic fields; it is also a generalization of the(More)
This paper presents first in vivo experiments for breast tumor detection using transient elastography. This technique has been developed for detection and quantitative mapping of hard lesions in soft tissues. It consists in following the propagation inside soft tissues of very low-frequency shear waves (approximately 60 Hz) generated by a vibrating system(More)
Several methods have been proposed to estimate the viscoelastic properties of soft biological tissues using forced low-frequency vibrations (10-500 Hz). Those methods are based on the measurement of phase velocity of the shear waves (approximately 5 m/s). It is shown in this article that the measurements of velocity as well as attenuation are subjected to(More)
Developing minimally invasive brain surgery by high-intensity focused ultrasound beams is of great interest in cancer therapy. However, the skull induces strong aberrations both in phase and amplitude, resulting in a severe degradation of the beam shape. Thus, an efficient brain tumor therapy would require an adaptive focusing, taking into account the(More)
Two main questions are at the center of this paper. The first one concerns the choice of a rheological model in the frequency range of transient elastography, sonoelasticity or NMR elastography for soft solids (20-1000 Hz). Transient elastography experiments based on plane shear waves that propagate in an Agar-gelatin phantom or in bovine muscles enable one(More)