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Learning involves the integration of new information into existing knowledge. Generoting explanations to oneself (self-explaining) facilitates that integration process. Previously, self-explanation has been shown to improve the acquisition of problem-solving skills when studying worked-out examples. This study extends that finding, showing that(More)
The present paper analyzes the self-generated explanations (from talk-aloud protocols) that " Good " ond " Poor " students produce while studying worked-out exomples of mechanics problems, and their subsequent reliance on examples during problem solving. We find that " Good " students learn with understanding: They generate many explanations which refine(More)
Examining organization of semantic information in the domain of Physics for PROBLEM SOLVING for experts versus novices: 1. Use of problem categories (models) to solve problem 2. Types of problem categories used 3. Knowledge associated with problem categories 4. Features of problems that affect how problem represented Operational definitions: PROBLEM(More)
Active, constructive, and interactive are terms that are commonly used in the cognitive and learning sciences. They describe activities that can be undertaken by learners. However, the literature is actually not explicit about how these terms can be defined; whether they are distinct; and whether they refer to overt manifestations, learning processes, or(More)
The goals of this study are to evaluate a relatively novel learning environment, as well as to seek greater understanding of why human tutoring is so effective. This alternative learning environment consists of pairs of students collaboratively observing a videotape of another student being tutored. Comparing this collaboratively observing environment to(More)
This paper evaluates the assertion that short-term memory (STM) capacity increases with age. Initially an analysis is made of the STM system in terms of its parameters and control processes. No evidence was found that can suggest conclusively that either the capacity or the rate of information loss from STM varies with age. On the other hand, substantial(More)
Studies exploring how students learn and understand science processes such as diffusion and natural selection typically find that students provide misconceived explanations of how the patterns of such processes arise (such as why giraffes' necks get longer over generations, or how ink dropped into water appears to "flow"). Instead of explaining the patterns(More)
This study reports preliminary findings from a study that investigated (1) the kind and extent of shared knowledge constructed after collaborative learning and (2) the relationship between the construction of shared knowledge and individual learning. In this study, college dyads collaborated to learn a biology concept. Preliminary findings showed that pairs(More)