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The present paper analyzes the self-generated explanations (from talk-aloud protocols) that " Good " ond " Poor " students produce while studying worked-out exomples of mechanics problems, and their subsequent reliance on examples during problem solving. We find that " Good " students learn with understanding: They generate many explanations which refine(More)
Examining organization of semantic information in the domain of Physics for PROBLEM SOLVING for experts versus novices: 1. Use of problem categories (models) to solve problem 2. Types of problem categories used 3. Knowledge associated with problem categories 4. Features of problems that affect how problem represented Operational definitions: PROBLEM(More)
Learning involves the integration of new information into existing knowledge. Generoting explanations to oneself (self-explaining) facilitates that integration process. Previously, self-explanation has been shown to improve the acquisition of problem-solving skills when studying worked-out examples. This study extends that finding, showing that(More)
Active, constructive, and interactive are terms that are commonly used in the cognitive and learning sciences. They describe activities that can be undertaken by learners. However, the literature is actually not explicit about how these terms can be defined; whether they are distinct; and whether they refer to overt manifestations, learning processes, or(More)
The goals of this study are to evaluate a relatively novel learning environment, as well as to seek greater understanding of why human tutoring is so effective. This alternative learning environment consists of pairs of students collaboratively observing a videotape of another student being tutored. Comparing this collaboratively observing environment to(More)
Human one-to-one tutoring has been shown to be a very effective form of instruction. Three contrasting hypotheses, a tutor-centered one, a student-centered one, and an interactive one could all potentially explain the effectiveness of tutoring. To test these hypotheses, analyses focused not only on the effectiveness of the tutors' moves, but also on the(More)
Studies exploring how students learn and understand science processes such as diffusion and natural selection typically find that students provide misconceived explanations of how the patterns of such processes arise (such as why giraffes' necks get longer over generations, or how ink dropped into water appears to "flow"). Instead of explaining the patterns(More)
This study reports preliminary findings from a study that investigated (1) the kind and extent of shared knowledge constructed after collaborative learning and (2) the relationship between the construction of shared knowledge and individual learning. In this study, college dyads collaborated to learn a biology concept. Preliminary findings showed that pairs(More)
Errors in medicine result in over 44,000 preventable deaths annually. Some of these errors are made by specialized physicians at the time of diagnosis. Building on error frameworks proposed in the literature, we tested the experimental hypothesis that physicians within a given specialty have a bias in diagnosing cases outside their own domain as being(More)
In examine the tutoring protocols of one expert human tutor tutoring 10 students in solving physics problems, four analyses reveal that he tutored the five good learners in different ways than the five poorer learners, resulting also in greater adjusted gains for the good learners. This opens up the question of whether the tutor is non-optimally adaptive.(More)