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Experimental work in animals has identified numerous neural structures involved in reward processing and reward-dependent learning. Until recently, this work provided the primary basis for speculations about the neural substrates of human reward processing. The widespread use of neuroimaging technology has changed this situation dramatically over the past(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the cognitive and psychiatric outcome 6 months after bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) using a disease control group. METHODS 23 patients who underwent DBS were compared with 28 medically treated patients with PD at baseline and at 6 months for(More)
Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is currently the treatment of choice for medication-resistant levodopa-related motor complications in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). While STN-DBS often results in meaningful motor improvements, consensus regarding long-term neuropsychological outcome continues to be debated. We assessed the(More)
BACKGROUND Deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but questions remain regarding neuropsychological decrements sometimes associated with this treatment, including rates of statistically and clinically meaningful change, and whether there are differences in outcome related to surgical target. METHODS(More)
Despite the findings of significantly improved motor functioning following pallidotomy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, the cognitive sequelae following surgery have yet to be clearly defined. With increasing knowledge of the surgery's effect on frontostriatal circuits, the cognitive processes potentially affected by the procedure require further(More)
BACKGROUND The outcome literature of subthalamic nuclei (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) suggests that cognitive declines are commonly reported following surgery. We hypothesized that differences in electrode position and surgical trajectory may lead to a differential neuropsychological outcome. METHODS We conducted a standardized evaluation of the(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated retrospectively the short and long-term motor and cognitive functioning of staged bilateral pallidotomy using motor testing and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery before and after each procedure. METHODS Fifteen patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were assessed at baseline and at least 3 months after each of(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) on individual and group spatial and verbal learning and memory abilities as a function of side of surgery and seizure control outcome. METHODS We evaluated pre- and postsurgical learning and memory abilities of 75 left-hemisphere language dominant individuals who underwent ATL (33 left,(More)
Sneddon syndrome (SS) is characterized by livedo racemosa, recurrent ischemic strokes, and often progressive vascular dementia. Treatment options for SS center on either anticoagulation or immunosuppression to prevent strokes and to dissipate the skin findings, with these modalities based historically on the presence or absence of antiphospholipid(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the long term cognitive outcome of unilateral posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP) and the overall efficacy of the surgery. METHODS Forty two (29 left and 13 right PVP) patients with Parkinson's disease underwent neurological and neuropsychological testing before PVP and at 3 and 12 months after PVP. The neuropsychological testing battery(More)