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Although previous studies have shown pointing errors and abnormal multijoint coordination in seated subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) who cannot view their arm, the extent to which subjects with PD have problems using proprioception to coordinate equilibrium maintenance and goal-oriented task execution has not been adequately investigated. If a common(More)
Many studies showed that both arm movements and postural control are characterized by strong invariants. Besides, when a movement requires simultaneous control of the hand trajectory and balance maintenance, these two movement components are highly coordinated. It is well known that the focal and postural invariants are individually tightly linked to(More)
In many day-to-day situations humans manifest a marked tendency to hold the head vertical while performing sensori-motor actions. For instance, when performing coordinated whole-body motor tasks, such as skiing, gymnastics or simply walking, and even when driving a car, human subjects will strive to keep the head aligned with the gravito-inertial vector.(More)
When aligning the hand to grasp an object, the CNS combines multiple sensory inputs encoded in multiple reference frames. Previous studies suggest that when a direct comparison of target and hand is possible via a single sensory modality, the CNS avoids performing unnecessary coordinate transformations that add noise. But when target and hand do not share a(More)
The large number of mechanical degrees of freedom of the hand is not fully exploited during actual movements such as grasping. Usually, angular movements in various joints tend to be coupled, and EMG activities in different hand muscles tend to be correlated. The occurrence of covariation in the former was termed kinematic synergies, in the latter muscle(More)
To control targeted movements, such as reaching to grasp an object or hammering a nail, the brain can use divers sources of sensory information, such as vision and proprioception. Although a variety of studies have shown that sensory signals are optimally combined according to principles of maximum likelihood, increasing evidence indicates that the CNS does(More)
While a large number of robotic exoskeletons have been designed by research teams for rehabilitation, it remains rather difficult to analyse their ability to finely interact with a human limb: no performance indicators or general methodology to characterize this capacity really exist. This is particularly regretful at a time when robotics are becoming a(More)
In spite of the complexity of human motor behavior, difficulties in mathematical modeling have restricted to rather simple movements attempts to identify the motor planning criterion used by the central nervous system. This paper presents a novel-simulation technique able to predict the "desired trajectory" corresponding to a wide range of kinematic and(More)
Several experimental studies in the literature have shown that even when performing purely kinesthetic tasks, such as reaching for a kinesthetically felt target with a hidden hand, the brain reconstructs a visual representation of the movement. In our previous studies, however, we did not observe any role of a visual representation of the movement in a(More)
We investigated whether the human brain encodes and memorizes object orientations with respect to external references, such as gravity and visual landmarks, or whether it uses egocentric representations of the task. To this end, we applied a new analysis to a previously reported experiment on a reach-to-grasp-like movement, in which we used sensory conflict(More)