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BACKGROUND Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and the leading cause of dementia among senile subjects. It has been proposed that AD can be caused by defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Given the fundamental contribution of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) for the respiratory chain, there have been a number(More)
The proteasome generates the epitopes presented on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules that elicit CD8+ T cell responses. Reports of proteasome-generated spliced epitopes exist, but they have been regarded as rare events. Here, however, we show that the proteasome-generated spliced peptide pool accounts for one-third of the entire HLA class I(More)
Proteasomal protein degradation is a key determinant of protein half-life and hence of cellular processes ranging from basic metabolism to a host of immunological processes. Despite its importance the mechanisms regulating proteasome activity are only incompletely understood. Here we use an iterative and tightly integrated experimental and modelling(More)
A common arginine to proline polymorphism is harboured at codon 72 of the human p53 gene. In this investigation, we found that fibroblasts and lymphocytes isolated from arginine allele homozygote centenarians and sexagenarians (Arg+) undergo an oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis at a higher extent than cells obtained from proline allele carriers (Pro+). At(More)
Many epidemiological data indicate the presence of a strong familial component of longevity that is largely determined by genetics, and a number of possible associations between longevity and allelic variants of genes have been described. A breakthrough strategy to get insight into the genetics of longevity is the study of centenarians, the best example of(More)
A wide difference in the susceptibility to undergo in vitro apoptosis exists among individuals, and this fact has potential implications in predicting the in vivo response to apoptotic agents, such as those employed in chemotherapy. In this report, we addressed the question whether the natural variability at p53 locus (the proline-arginine substitution at(More)
As a consequence of inflammatory stimuli (such as TNFalpha and IFNgamma), some constitutive subunits of the proteasome, the principal mediator of nonlysosomal protein degradation, are replaced with other subunits, the large multifunctional proteases LMP2 and LMP7, thus originating the immunoproteasome. An age-related alteration of proteasome activity and(More)
The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major intracellular molecular machinery for protein degradation and maintenance of protein homeostasis in most human cells. As ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a critical role in the regulation of the immune system, it might also influence the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Both ex vivo(More)
In this study, we investigated the presence and role of immunoproteasome and its LMP2 subunit polymorphism at codon 60 in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immunoproteasome was present in brain areas such as hippocampus and cerebellum and localized in neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells. A higher expression of immunoproteasome was found in brain of AD(More)
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) have been used to improve cognitive status and disability in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, while the efficacy of AChEIs (i.e. how they act in randomized controlled trials) in this setting is widely accepted, their effectiveness (i.e. how they behave in the real world) remains(More)