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BACKGROUND Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and the leading cause of dementia among senile subjects. It has been proposed that AD can be caused by defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Given the fundamental contribution of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) for the respiratory chain, there have been a number(More)
The proteasome generates the epitopes presented on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules that elicit CD8+ T cell responses. Reports of proteasome-generated spliced epitopes exist, but they have been regarded as rare events. Here, however, we show that the proteasome-generated spliced peptide pool accounts for one-third of the entire HLA class I(More)
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) have been used to improve cognitive status and disability in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, while the efficacy of AChEIs (i.e. how they act in randomized controlled trials) in this setting is widely accepted, their effectiveness (i.e. how they behave in the real world) remains(More)
In this study, we investigated the presence and role of immunoproteasome and its LMP2 subunit polymorphism at codon 60 in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immunoproteasome was present in brain areas such as hippocampus and cerebellum and localized in neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells. A higher expression of immunoproteasome was found in brain of AD(More)
Despite the central role of proteasomes in relevant physiological pathways and pathological processes, this topic is unexpectedly largely unexplored in human liver. Here we present data on the presence of proteasome and immunoproteasome in human livers from normal adults, fetuses and patients affected by major hepatic diseases such as cirrhosis and chronic(More)
The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major intracellular molecular machinery for protein degradation and maintenance of protein homeostasis in most human cells. As ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a critical role in the regulation of the immune system, it might also influence the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Both ex vivo(More)
Immunoproteasome has been associated to neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases as a marker and regulator of inflammatory mechanisms. Its expression in the brain may occur upon neuroinflammation in different cell types and affect a variety of homeostatic and inflammatory pathways including the oxidized protein clearance and the self-antigen presentation.(More)
A common arginine to proline polymorphism is harboured at codon 72 of the human p53 gene. In this investigation, we found that fibroblasts and lymphocytes isolated from arginine allele homozygote centenarians and sexagenarians (Arg+) undergo an oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis at a higher extent than cells obtained from proline allele carriers (Pro+). At(More)
Human aging and longevity are complex and multi-factorial traits that result from a combination of environmental, genetic, epigenetic and stochastic factors, each contributing to the overall phenotype. The multi-factorial process of aging acts at different levels of complexity, from molecule to cell, from organ to organ systems and finally to organism,(More)
The immunoproteasome subunit low molecular weight protein 2 (LMP2) codon 60 polymorphism has been associated with autoimmune diseases. It has also been demonstrated to influence susceptibility to TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis in blood cells and proteasome activity in aged human brain. In the present study, an in silico model of immunoproteasome was used to(More)