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CONTEXT Narcolepsy, a neurological disorder affecting 1 in 2000 individuals, is associated with HLA-DQB1*0602 and low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin (orexin) levels. OBJECTIVES To delineate the spectrum of the hypocretin deficiency syndrome and to establish CSF hypocretin-1 measurements as a diagnostic tool for narcolepsy. DESIGN Diagnosis,(More)
Hypocretins (orexins) are hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in sleep and energy homeostasis. Hypocretin mutations produce narcolepsy in animal models. In humans, narcolepsy is rarely due to hypocretin mutations, but this system is deficient in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain of a small number of patients. A recent study also indicates increased(More)
Evidence links disturbed sleep with an exaggerated inflammatory response and increased risk of adverse health outcomes. An emerging risk factor for many adverse health outcomes is chronic, low-grade inflammation. An exaggerated inflammatory response could provide a biological link between disturbed sleep and adverse health outcomes. The relationship between(More)
Previous work has shown that psychosocial stress is related to increases in serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines late in pregnancy, and a growing body of research suggests that increased inflammatory activity during pregnancy, generally, may have a negative impact on outcome. The present study further addressed these issues by assessing relationships(More)
There is an extensive literature regarding the immunological and endocrinological consequences of illness, stress, and psychopathology. Yet only a modest literature is available regarding the potential unfavorable effects of chronic sleep loss/disruption on immune and endocrine pathways or on various aspects of health. Given that humans spend approximately(More)
The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a burst of cortisol in response to awakening from sleep that is superimposed on the circadian rhythm of cortisol. Determination of the CAR is contingent on the timing of sample collection: a delay between waking and collection of the first sample may affect the rise of the CAR, and could explain equivocal findings(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore relationships between wake- and sleep-related health behaviors and circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) in a cohort of community dwelling older adults. Low-grade chronic inflammation is an important risk factor for age-related morbidity. Health behaviors, including(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent data suggest that prenatal stress negatively affects pregnancy and infant outcome. Existing studies implicate dysregulation of the immune and endocrine systems in stress-related increases in premature labor and poor birth outcome, but no published studies have directly addressed the relationships among these variables during pregnancy. We(More)
Human narcolepsy/cataplexy is associated with reduced hypocretin (orexin) transmission. A common preprophypocretin (HCRT) polymorphism (-909C/T) was identified and tested in 502 subjects (105 trio families, 80 Caucasian narcolepsy cases, and 107 Caucasian control subjects). This polymorphism was not associated with the disease. The promoter and 5'(More)
Narcolepsy is a disabling neurological sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and abnormal REM sleep manifestations. Recently, the role of cytokines and growth hormone in the regulation of sleep and narcolepsy has been considered, and data suggest that proinflammatory cytokines may be involved in sleep and narcoleptic symptoms. Serum(More)