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This paper addresses the problem of modeling head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) for 3-D audio rendering in the front hemisphere. Following a structural approach, we build a model for real-time HRTF synthesis which allows to control separately the evolution of different acoustic phenomena such as head diffraction, ear resonances, and reflections through(More)
This paper studies the relationship between head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) and pinna reflection patterns in the frontal hemispace. A pre-processed database of HRTFs allows extraction of up to three spectral notches from each response taken in the median sagittal plane. Ray-tracing analysis performed on the obtained notches' central frequencies is(More)
This paper faces the general problem of modeling pinna-related transfer functions (PRTFs) for 3-D sound rendering. Following a structural approach, we aim at constructing a model for PRTF synthesis which allows to control separately the evolution of ear resonances and spectral notches through the design of two distinct filter blocks. Taking such model as(More)
A novel approach to the modeling of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) for binaural audio rendering is formalized and described in this paper. Mixed structural modeling (MSM) can be seen as the generalization and extension of the structural modeling approach first defined by Brown and Duda back in 1998. Possible solutions for building partial HRTFs(More)
A novel approach to the selection of generic head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) for binaural audio rendering through headphones is formalized and described in this paper. A reflection model applied to the user's ear picture facilitates extraction of the relevant anthropometric cues that are used for selecting two HRTF sets in a database fitting that(More)
The contribution of the external ear to the head-related transfer function (HRTF) heavily depends on the listener's unique anthropometry. In particular, the shape of the most prominent contours of the pinna defines the frequency location of the HRTF spectral notches along the elevation of the sound source. This paper addresses the issue of automatically(More)
This paper focuses on the localization of footstep sounds interactively generated during walking and provided through headphones. Three distinct experiments were conducted in a laboratory involving a pair of sandals enhanced with pressure sensors and a footstep synthesizer capable of simulating two typologies of surface materials: solid (e.g., wood) and(More)
The paper presents a system for customized binaural audio delivery based on the extraction of the relevant features from a 2-D representation of the listener's pinna. A procedure based on multi-flash imaging for recognizing the main contours of the pinna and their position with respect to the ear canal entrance is detailed. The resulting contours drive the(More)