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Song production in birds is driven by temporally complex respiratory patterns. In zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), song consists of repetitions of a stereotyped sequence of distinct syllables (motif). Syllables correspond to distinct expiratory pulses, which alternate with short deep inspirations. We investigated the effect of the song motor pattern on(More)
Juvenile male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) learn a stereotyped song by imitating sounds from adult male tutors. Their song is composed of a series of syllables, which are separated by silent periods. How acoustic units of song are translated into respiratory and syringeal motor gestures during the song learning process is not well understood. To(More)
The primary processes of the photochemical cycle of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR) were studied by various experimental techniques with a time resolution of 5 x 10(-13) s. The following results were obtained. (a) After optical excitation the first excited singlet state S(1) of bacteriorhodopsin is observed via its fluorescence and absorption(More)
The fine structures of the surface of Brugia malayi obtained from Mastomys natalensis are demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. The head of the parasite is bulbous in shape. The amphidial openings lie beside small elevations. The surface structure of the inner papillae is smooth with a small elevation in the middle. The outer papillae are grooved.(More)
Two male and two female Brugia malayi were collected from Mastomys natalensis, and cross sections from various regions of these worms were studied. The body wall of the female worm is thin throughout its length, whereas in the midbody and posterior region of the male worm the somatic muscles form a thick layer. In both sexes the intestine is thickest(More)
The morphology of the hypodermal chords in the anterior, midbody and posterior region and in worms of different ages are described and the amphids, the cephalic papillae and the nerve ring are demonstrated. At the anterior end, the hypodermal cap comprises the sensory organs. Close behind, the hypodermal chords are differentiated, and several cell margins(More)
The morphology of the cuticle, the interchordal hypodermis and the muscle cells of three mature but not full-grown worms, one worm less than five years old, two worms at least five years old and seven worms of unknown age are described. The cuticle in the anterior region is very similar to that of the male worm, however, in the midbody region the cuticular(More)
The early events in halorhodopsin after light excitation are studied with picosecond time resolution. Absorption and fluorescence measurements show that the electronically excited state of the incorporated retinal has a lifetime of 5 ps. Within that time a red-shifted photoproduct is formed that remains stable for at least 2 ns.
The morphology of the oesophagus, the intestine, the ovary, the uterus, the vagina and some inclusions in the body cavity are described in worms of different ages. The oesophagus wall comprises mostly muscle fibrils and a few glandular regions located only in the posterior portion. In the lumen, some material was found. From the anterior to the posterior(More)