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Sleep spindles are a distinctive EEG phasic feature of NREM sleep and are prevalent during stage 2 as compared to slow wave sleep. While the neurophysiological mechanisms of spindle generation, that involves thalamic and corticothalamic networks, have been recently delineated and are briefly reviewed, their definitive functional meaning still remains to be(More)
Spindle density, visually scored in the 12-15 Hz range over antero-posterior midline derivations, was assessed during a baseline night in ten normal subjects. Sleep spindles were found to be highly variable between subjects and more abundant during Stage 2. Topographical distribution of spindle density showed a centroparietal prevalence, stable between NREM(More)
OBJECTIVE Electrical stimulation of the median nerve followed by a magnetic pulse on the primary motor cortex (M1) is effective to cause an increase in the amplitude of motor evoked potential (MEP) registered in the target muscle with the interstimulus interval (ISI) at 25ms (paired associative stimulation, PAS). The aim of this study is to evaluate the(More)
At a time when several studies have highlighted the relationship between sleep, learning and memory processes, an in-depth analysis of the effects of sleep deprivation on student learning ability and academic performance would appear to be essential. Most studies have been naturalistic correlative investigations, where sleep schedules were correlated with(More)
We recorded the resting electroencephalogram of 20 healthy subjects in order to investigate the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on EEG waking activity and its temporal development. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups and exposed, in double-blind conditions, to a typical mobile phone signal (902.40 MHz, modulated at 217 Hz, with(More)
Homeostatic and circadian processes are basic mechanisms of human sleep which challenge the common knowledge of large individual variations in sleep need or differences in circadian types. However, since sleep research has mostly focused on group measures, an approach which emphasizes the similarities between subjects, the biological foundations of the(More)
Spindle activity, visually scored in the 12-15 Hz range over antero-posterior midline derivations, has been assessed in ten normal subjects during a baseline and a recovery sleep after 2 nights of selective slow-wave sleep (SWS) deprivation. The recovery sleep, characterized by a significant increase of stage 4 and SWS as compared to the baseline, revealed(More)
Sleep inertia (SI) denotes a period of hypovigilance, confusion and impaired cognitive and behavioral performance that immediately follows awakening. Based on the observation that the reactivation of some cortical areas is faster than other upon awakening, here we examined regional differences between presleep and postsleep waking period. Moreover, we also(More)
OBJECTIVE The study aims to compare transcallosal inhibition (TI), as assessed by the paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technique, in a sample of right-handed subjects (RH) and left-handed subjects (LH). Motor thresholds (MTs) and motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes were also measured in the two groups, as an index of corticospinal(More)
We evaluated the effects of selective slow-wave sleep (SWS) deprivation and time-of-night factors on cognitive performance upon awakening. Ten normal men slept for 6 consecutive nights in the laboratory: 1 adaptation, 2 baseline, 2 selective SWS deprivation, and 1 recovery night. Cognitive performance was assessed by means of a Descending Subtraction Task(More)