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At a time when several studies have highlighted the relationship between sleep, learning and memory processes, an in-depth analysis of the effects of sleep deprivation on student learning ability and academic performance would appear to be essential. Most studies have been naturalistic correlative investigations, where sleep schedules were correlated with(More)
Homeostatic and circadian processes are basic mechanisms of human sleep which challenge the common knowledge of large individual variations in sleep need or differences in circadian types. However, since sleep research has mostly focused on group measures, an approach which emphasizes the similarities between subjects, the biological foundations of the(More)
Humans have an individual profile of the electroencephalographic power spectra at the 8 to 16 Hz frequency during non-rapid eye movement sleep that is stable over time and resistant to experimental perturbations. We tested the hypothesis that this electroencephalographic "fingerprint" is genetically determined, by recording 40 monozygotic and dizygotic(More)
OBJECTIVE Electrical stimulation of the median nerve followed by a magnetic pulse on the primary motor cortex (M1) is effective to cause an increase in the amplitude of motor evoked potential (MEP) registered in the target muscle with the interstimulus interval (ISI) at 25ms (paired associative stimulation, PAS). The aim of this study is to evaluate the(More)
The aim of this study was to assess the functional coupling between anterior and posterior areas as induced by the sleep onset process. The functional coupling was indexed by an analysis of spectral coherence and directed transfer function (DTF) from electroencephalographic (EEG) data. As it has been reported that more anterior areas first synchronize sleep(More)
The use of the directed transfer function (DTF), an advanced computational analysis of electroencephalogaphic (EEG) data, which provides an estimation of the direction of the information flow underlying cortico-cortical functional coupling, has shown that the presleep period is characterized by posterior-to-anterior functional cortical coupling, while at(More)
Neural systems of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) involved in executive functions are particularly vulnerable to sleep deprivation (SD). In this study, we investigated whether SD selectively affects specific components of the executive control processes involved in task-switching performance. Two different tasks are performed in rapid and random succession in(More)
Under the assumption that dream recall is a peculiar form of declarative memory, we have hypothesized that (1) the encoding of dream contents during sleep should share some electrophysiological mechanisms with the encoding of episodic memories of the awake brain and (2) recalling a dream(s) after awakening from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye(More)
RATIONALE The aim of the present study was to assess, intraindividually, the relationship among slow eye movements, electroencephalogram (EEG) power, and subjective measures of sleepiness during a 40-hour sleep deprivation comparing 2 experimental conditions: eyes-open and eyes-closed. METHODS Nineteen normal subjects participated in a sleep-deprivation(More)