Michele E. Hardy

Learn More
Norwalk virus, a noncultivatable human calicivirus, is the major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis in humans. The first x-ray structure of a calicivirus capsid, which consists of 180 copies of a single protein, has been determined by phase extension from a low-resolution electron microscopy structure. The capsid protein has a protruding (P) domain connected(More)
Mechanisms by which viruses counter innate host defense responses generally involve inhibition of one or more components of the interferon (IFN) system. Multiple steps in the induction and amplification of IFN signaling are targeted for inhibition by viral proteins, and many of the IFN antagonists have direct or indirect effects on activation of latent(More)
The positive-strand RNA genomes of caliciviruses are not capped, but are instead covalently linked at their 5' ends to a viral protein called VPg. The lack of a cap structure typical of eukaryotic mRNA and absence of an internal ribosomal entry site suggest that VPg may function in translation initiation on calicivirus RNA. This hypothesis was tested by(More)
Porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) is associated with diarrhea in pigs, and to date it is the only cultivable enteric calicivirus (tissue culture-adapted [TC] PEC/Cowden). Based on sequence analysis of cDNA clones and reverse transcription-PCR products, TC PEC/Cowden has an RNA genome of 7,320 bp, excluding its 3' poly(A)(+) tail. The genome is organized in(More)
Noroviruses are positive strand RNA viruses that have received increased attention in recent years because their role as etiologic agents in acute gastroenteritis outbreaks is now clearly established. Much has been learned about the epidemiology of these viruses and the extent of genetic diversity among circulating strains. In contrast, progress on(More)
Norwalk virus (NV) is a causative agent of acute epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The inability to cultivate NV has required the use of molecular techniques to examine the genome organization and functions of the viral proteins. The function of the NV protein encoded by open reading frame 3 (ORF 3) has been unknown. In this paper, we report(More)
Norwalk virus (NV) is the prototype strain of a group of noncultivable human caliciviruses responsible for epidemic outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. While these viruses do not grow in tissue culture cells or animal models, expression of the capsid protein in insect cells results in the self-assembly of recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles (rNV VLPs)(More)
The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the gene 4 of bovine rotavirus strain B223 is described. The open reading frame is predicted to encode a VP4 of 772 amino acids, shorter than described for any other rotavirus strain sequenced to date. B223 VP4 shows 70 to 73% similarity to other rotavirus VP4 proteins, demonstrating the presence of a unique(More)
The Snow Mountain agent (SMA) is the prototype genogroup II and serotype 3 human calicivirus responsible for epidemic outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. We have cloned the region of the SMA genome that encodes the single capsid protein. The predicted amino acid sequence of the capsid protein is distinct from other calicivirus strains that have been termed(More)
Human calicivirus Sapporo (SV) has typical calicivirus morphology and causes acute gastroenteritis in children. The nucleotide sequence of 3.2 kb of the 3′ end of SV was determined from a cloned cDNA. The 3′ end of the SV genome is predicted to encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region, the capsid protein and two small open reading frames. The(More)