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Norwalk virus, a noncultivatable human calicivirus, is the major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis in humans. The first x-ray structure of a calicivirus capsid, which consists of 180 copies of a single protein, has been determined by phase extension from a low-resolution electron microscopy structure. The capsid protein has a protruding (P) domain connected(More)
Norwalk virus (NV) is a causative agent of acute epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The inability to cultivate NV has required the use of molecular techniques to examine the genome organization and functions of the viral proteins. The function of the NV protein encoded by open reading frame 3 (ORF 3) has been unknown. In this paper, we report(More)
Norwalk virus (NV) is the prototype strain of a group of noncultivable human caliciviruses responsible for epidemic outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. While these viruses do not grow in tissue culture cells or animal models, expression of the capsid protein in insect cells results in the self-assembly of recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles (rNV VLPs)(More)
The positive-strand RNA genomes of caliciviruses are not capped, but are instead covalently linked at their 5' ends to a viral protein called VPg. The lack of a cap structure typical of eukaryotic mRNA and absence of an internal ribosomal entry site suggest that VPg may function in translation initiation on calicivirus RNA. This hypothesis was tested by(More)
The rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP1 is the least conserved protein in the rotavirus genome, and its function in the replication cycle is not known. We employed NSP1 as bait in the yeast two-hybrid interaction trap to identify candidate cellular partners of NSP1 that may provide clues to its function. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) was(More)
Norwalk virus (NV), a reference strain of human calicivirus in the Norovirus genus of the family Caliciviridae, contains a positive-strand RNA genome with three open reading frames. ORF1 encodes a 1,789-amino-acid polyprotein that is processed into nonstructural proteins that include an NTPase, VPg, protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The N-terminal(More)
The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the gene 4 of bovine rotavirus strain B223 is described. The open reading frame is predicted to encode a VP4 of 772 amino acids, shorter than described for any other rotavirus strain sequenced to date. B223 VP4 shows 70 to 73% similarity to other rotavirus VP4 proteins, demonstrating the presence of a unique(More)
Rotavirus mRNAs are transcribed from 11 genomic dsRNA segments within a subviral particle. The mRNAs are extruded into the cytoplasm where they serve as mRNA for protein synthesis and as templates for packaging and replication into dsRNA. The molecular steps in the replication pathway that regulate the levels of viral gene expression are not well defined.(More)
Porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) is associated with diarrhea in pigs, and to date it is the only cultivable enteric calicivirus (tissue culture-adapted [TC] PEC/Cowden). Based on sequence analysis of cDNA clones and reverse transcription-PCR products, TC PEC/Cowden has an RNA genome of 7,320 bp, excluding its 3' poly(A)(+) tail. The genome is organized in(More)