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The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was first identified as a survival factor for midbrain dopaminergic neurons, but additional studies provided evidences for a role as a trophic factor for other neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. GDNF regulates cellular activity through interaction with(More)
BDNF is a pro-survival protein involved in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. BDNF strengthens excitatory synapses and contributes to LTP, presynaptically, through enhancement of glutamate release, and postsynaptically, via phosphorylation of neurotransmitter receptors, modulation of receptor traffic and activation of the translation machinery.(More)
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a catalytic machinery that targets numerous cellular proteins for degradation, thus being essential to control a wide range of basic cellular processes and cell survival. Degradation of intracellular proteins via the UPS is a tightly regulated process initiated by tagging a target protein with a specific ubiquitin(More)
Overactivation of glutamate receptors contributes to neuronal damage (excitotoxicity) in ischemic stroke but the detailed mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Brain ischemia is also characterized by an impairment of the activity of the proteasome, one of the major proteolytic systems in neurons. We found that excitotoxic stimulation with glutamate rapidly(More)
Long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus is thought to underlie the formation of certain forms of memory, including spatial memory. The early phase of long-term synaptic potentiation and synaptic depression depends on post-translational modifications of synaptic proteins, while protein synthesis is also required for the late-phase of both forms of(More)
The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has an important role in neuronal survival through binding to the GFRα1 (GDNF family receptor alpha-1) receptor and activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret. Transient brain ischemia alters the expression of the GDNF signaling machinery but whether the GDNF receptor proteins are also affected, and(More)
Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and tau-dependent pathology are key features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, to date, approaches aimed at counteracting these two pathogenic factors have produced only modest therapeutic outcomes. More effective therapies should therefore consider additional pathogenic factors like energy production failure, hyperexcitability(More)
The excessive extracellular accumulation of glutamate in the ischemic brain leads to an overactivation of glutamate receptors with consequent excitotoxic neuronal death. Neuronal demise is largely due to a sustained activation of NMDA receptors for glutamate, with a consequent increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and activation of calcium-(More)
Tubulin, the subunit protein of microtubules, undergoes a time-dependent loss of functional properties known as decay. We have previously shown that the drug 2-(4-fluorophenyl)- -(2-chloro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-6-phenyl-4(1H)-pyridinone (IKP104) accelerates decay, but that in the presence of colchicine, IKP104 becomes a stabilizer of tubulin. To see(More)