Michele B. Reid

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The tolerance of totally curarized subjects for prolonged breath hold is viewed by many as evidence that respiratory muscle contraction is essential to generate the sensation of breathlessness. Although conflicting evidence exists, none of it was obtained during total neuromuscular block. We completely paralyzed four normal, unsedated subjects with(More)
It has been suggested that the act of taking a stride produces substantial respiratory volume displacement and that this assists the respiratory muscles during locomotion. We measured the flow at the mouth associated with stride in walking and running humans and found it to be 1-2% of respiratory tidal volume, which is too small to make an appreciable(More)
A number of investigators have proposed that the sense of respiratory discomfort accompanying hypercapnia depends on respiratory mechanoreceptors which inform the sensory cortex of reflex increases in breathing. To test this hypothesis, we studied subjects whose respiratory muscles were paralyzed, and who were thus unable to increase breathing in response(More)
These experiments tested the capacity of theophylline to improve diaphragm strength (maximal force development) and endurance (maintenance of force output during repeated contractions). Rodent diaphragm strips were mounted at optimal length in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer solution (37 degrees C, pH 7.37). Direct stimuli used supramaximal current density, 0.2-ms(More)
We observed striking differences in respiratory muscle electromyogram activity when active expirations were interrupted in rapid succession, depending on the mode of interruption. When the interruptions were produced at the level of the glottis (utterances, uh-uh-uh-uh, at 5-8 Hz) there were synchronous bursts of activity from expiratory muscles in all(More)
We measured tidal volume (VT), chest wall dimensions, end-tidal PCO2, and respiratory muscle electromyograms as seated subjects were immersed in water. We studied nine spontaneously breathing subjects; five were uninformed. Raising the water to xiphoid level pushed the abdomen in and expanded the rib cage at end expiration. This increased the diaphragm's(More)
We administered lidocaine aerosol intratracheal anesthesia to a ventilator-dependent, tracheostomized C1-C2 tetraplegic subject to determine its effect on her ability to detect small changes in tidal volume. A psychophysical test of volume detection was given before and immediately after a 20 percent lidocaine aerosol was delivered through the subject's(More)
The effects of nifedipine (30 micrograms/ml) on isometric force production of in-vitro rat diaphragm were studied during direct and indirect modes of muscle activation. During direct muscle stimulation, nifedipine potentiated isometric force during twitch and unfused tetanic stimulation. Indirectly elicited responses, evoked by stimulation of the phrenic(More)
The isometric contractile response of the directly-stimulated rat diaphragm was studied before and following addition of the calcium channel blocker, nifedipine. Nifedipine (10 micrograms/ml and 30 micrograms/ml bath concentrations) significantly increased isometric force output during twitch and unfused tetanic stimulation. Force potentiation during(More)