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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Macroautophagy is an evolutionary conserved lysosomal pathway involved in the turnover of cellular macromolecules and organelles. In spite of its essential role in tissue homeostasis, the molecular mechanisms regulating mammalian macroautophagy are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that a rise in the free cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)](c)) is a potent(More)
When mitochondrial respiration is compromised, the F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase reverses and consumes ATP, serving to maintain the mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi(m)). This process is mitigated by IF(1). As little is known of the cell biology of IF(1), we have investigated the functional consequences of varying IF(1) expression. We report that, (1)(More)
When mitochondrial function is compromised and the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)) falls below a threshold, the F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase can reverse, hydrolysing ATP to pump protons out of the mitochondrial matrix. Although this activity can deplete ATP and precipitate cell death, it is limited by the mitochondrial protein IF(1), an endogenous(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE NADPH oxidases (NOXs) contribute to platelet activation by a largely unknown mechanism. Here, we studied the effect of the novel NOX inhibitor 2-acetylphenothiazine (2-APT) on human platelet functional responses and intracellular signaling pathways. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The generation of superoxide ions was assessed by single cell(More)
Cells exposed to extreme physicochemical or mechanical stimuli die in an uncontrollable manner, as a result of their immediate structural breakdown. Such an unavoidable variant of cellular demise is generally referred to as 'accidental cell death' (ACD). In most settings, however, cell death is initiated by a genetically encoded apparatus, correlating with(More)
Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) is a polymer made from as few as 10 to several hundred phosphate molecules linked by phosphoanhydride bonds similar to ATP. Poly P is ubiquitous in all mammalian organisms, where it plays multiple physiological roles. The metabolism of poly P in mammalian organisms is not well understood. We have examined the mechanism of(More)
Recent work has shown that Bcl-2 and other anti-apoptotic proteins partially deplete the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store and that this alteration of Ca(2+) signaling reduces cellular sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. We expressed in HeLa cells Bcl-2, Bax, and Bcl-2/Bax chimeras in which the putative pore-forming domains of the two proteins (alpha(More)
Mitochondrial structure has a central role both in energy conversion and in the regulation of cell death. We have previously shown that IF1 protects cells from necrotic cell death and supports cristae structure by promoting the oligomerisation of the F1Fo-ATPsynthase. As IF1 is upregulated in a large proportion of human cancers, we have here explored its(More)