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We have investigated the in vitro effects of increased levels of glucose and free fatty acids on autophagy activation in pancreatic beta cells. INS-1E cells and isolated rat and human pancreatic islets were incubated for various times (from 2 to 24 h) at different concentrations of glucose and/or palmitic acid. Then, cell survival was evaluated and(More)
Transient reduction in coronary perfusion pressure in the isolated mouse heart increases microvascular resistance (paradoxical vasoconstriction) by an endothelium-mediated mechanism. To assess the presence and extent of paradoxical vasoconstriction in hearts from normal and diabetic rats and to determine whether increased heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression(More)
Growing evidences indicate that proteases are implicated in adipogenesis and in the onset of obesity. We previously reported that the cysteine protease cathepsin K (ctsk) is overexpressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese individuals. We herein characterized the WAT and the metabolic phenotype of ctsk deficient animals (ctsk-/-). When the growth(More)
Myocardial dysfunction and coronary macro/microvascular alterations are the hallmarks of diabetic cardiomyopathy and are ascribed to increased oxidative stress and altered nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. We hypothesize that pre-treatment by cobalt-protoporphyrin IX (CoPP) ameliorates both myocardial function and coronary circulation in streptozotocin(More)
Abnormalities in eNOS gene, possibly interacting with high fat diet (HFD), affect peripheral vascular function and glucose metabolism. The relative role of eNOS gene, HFD and metabolic derangement on coronary function has not been fully elucidated. We test whether eNOS gene deficiency per se or in association with HFD modulates coronary function through(More)
Regular physical exercise has emerged, together with dietary restriction, as an effective intervention in delaying degenerative diseases and augmenting life span in rodents. The mechanisms involved remain largely unknown, although a beneficial influence on the age-related alteration of insulin sensitivity has been hypothesized. As muscle triglyceride (TG)(More)
The extract of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort, SJW) and its component hyperforin (HPF) were previously shown to inhibit cytokine-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 and nuclear factor κB and prevent apoptosis in a cultured β-cell line. Objective of this study was to assess the protection exerted by SJW and HPF on(More)
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