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We have investigated the in vitro effects of increased levels of glucose and free fatty acids on autophagy activation in pancreatic beta cells. INS-1E cells and isolated rat and human pancreatic islets were incubated for various times (from 2 to 24 h) at different concentrations of glucose and/or palmitic acid. Then, cell survival was evaluated and(More)
Human pancreatic islets from eight donors were incubated for 48 h in the presence of 2.0 mmol/l free fatty acid (FFA) (oleate to palmitate, 2 to 1). Insulin secretion was then assessed in response to glucose (16.7 mmol/l), arginine (20 mmol/l), and glyburide (200 micromol/l) during static incubation or by perifusion. Glucose oxidation and utilization and(More)
Transient reduction in coronary perfusion pressure in the isolated mouse heart increases microvascular resistance (paradoxical vasoconstriction) by an endothelium-mediated mechanism. To assess the presence and extent of paradoxical vasoconstriction in hearts from normal and diabetic rats and to determine whether increased heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression(More)
Growing evidences indicate that proteases are implicated in adipogenesis and in the onset of obesity. We previously reported that the cysteine protease cathepsin K (ctsk) is overexpressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese individuals. We herein characterized the WAT and the metabolic phenotype of ctsk deficient animals (ctsk-/-). When the growth(More)
In a new experimental type 2 diabetic syndrome, a 40% reduction of pancreatic beta cells was observed by morphometric analysis. In diabetic islets, as compared to control islets, insulin release was decreased in response to high glucose but not to other stimuli, and total glucose oxidation and utilization were unchanged or slightly reduced. The extent of(More)
Myocardial dysfunction and coronary macro/microvascular alterations are the hallmarks of diabetic cardiomyopathy and are ascribed to increased oxidative stress and altered nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. We hypothesize that pre-treatment by cobalt-protoporphyrin IX (CoPP) ameliorates both myocardial function and coronary circulation in streptozotocin(More)
We have previously obtained a new type 2 diabetic syndrome in adult rats given streptozotocin and nicotinamide, characterized by reduced beta-cell mass, partially preserved insulin response to glucose and tolbutamide and excessive responsiveness to arginine. We have also established that the neuronal isoform of constitutive NO synthase (nNOS) is expressed(More)
We previously reported that in a diabetes mouse model, characterised by moderate hyperglycaemia and reduced beta-cell mass, the radical scavenger bis(1-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl)decandioate di-hydrochloride (IAC), a non-conventional cyclic hydroxylamine derivative, improves metabolic alterations by counteracting beta-cell dysfunction(More)
In this study we have investigated the insulin secretory response to glucose and other secretagogues (2-ketoisocaproate, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine and arginine) of pancreatic islets isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats of various ages (from 2 to 28 months). Our results showed a significant decline in the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, starting at 12(More)
Abnormalities in eNOS gene, possibly interacting with high fat diet (HFD), affect peripheral vascular function and glucose metabolism. The relative role of eNOS gene, HFD and metabolic derangement on coronary function has not been fully elucidated. We test whether eNOS gene deficiency per se or in association with HFD modulates coronary function through(More)