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We took advantage of the partial protection exerted by suitable dosages of nicotinamide against the beta-cytotoxic effect of streptozotocin (STZ) to create a new experimental diabetic syndrome in adult rats that appears closer to NIDDM than other available animal models with regard to insulin responsiveness to glucose and sulfonylureas. Among the various(More)
We have investigated the in vitro effects of increased levels of glucose and free fatty acids on autophagy activation in pancreatic beta cells. INS-1E cells and isolated rat and human pancreatic islets were incubated for various times (from 2 to 24 h) at different concentrations of glucose and/or palmitic acid. Then, cell survival was evaluated and(More)
To increase knowledge about the defense mechanisms of pancreatic beta-cells exposed to acute injury, the patterns of protection exerted by 3-aminobenzamide and nicotinamide against the effects of streptozotocin have been studied in vivo and in vitro. It was found that 3-aminobenzamide, a strong inhibitor of the NAD-consuming nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)(More)
Human pancreatic islets from eight donors were incubated for 48 h in the presence of 2.0 mmol/l free fatty acid (FFA) (oleate to palmitate, 2 to 1). Insulin secretion was then assessed in response to glucose (16.7 mmol/l), arginine (20 mmol/l), and glyburide (200 micromol/l) during static incubation or by perifusion. Glucose oxidation and utilization and(More)
In a new experimental type 2 diabetic syndrome, a 40% reduction of pancreatic beta cells was observed by morphometric analysis. In diabetic islets, as compared to control islets, insulin release was decreased in response to high glucose but not to other stimuli, and total glucose oxidation and utilization were unchanged or slightly reduced. The extent of(More)
Growing evidences indicate that proteases are implicated in adipogenesis and in the onset of obesity. We previously reported that the cysteine protease cathepsin K (ctsk) is overexpressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese individuals. We herein characterized the WAT and the metabolic phenotype of ctsk deficient animals (ctsk-/-). When the growth(More)
Oxidative stress is a putative mechanism leading to beta-cell damage in type 2 diabetes. We studied isolated human pancreatic islets from type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, matched for age and body mass index. Evidence of increased oxidative stress in diabetic islets was demonstrated by measuring nitrotyrosine concentration and by electron(More)
Due to the unusual presence of several different hemoglobin components in the rat, determination of glycated hemoglobin (Hb) has been considered difficult and often unreliable in this animal species. In the present study, we compare a fully automated high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of analysis of glycated hemoglobin that has been(More)
An amino acid analysis by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography after precolumn derivatization with phenyl isothiocyanate was adapted to the determination of free amino acids in plasma or other biological fluids and in tissue homogenates. Preparation of samples included deproteinization by 3% sulphosalicylic acid, and careful removal under(More)