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Neural circuits are shaped by experience in early postnatal life. Distinct GABAergic connections within visual cortex determine the timing of the critical period for rewiring ocular dominance to establish visual acuity. We find that maturation of the parvalbumin (PV)-cell network that controls plasticity onset is regulated by a selective re-expression of(More)
Engrailed-2 (En-2), a homeodomain transcription factor, is expressed in a caudal-to-rostral gradient in the developing midbrain, where it has an instructive role in patterning the optic tectum--the target of topographic retinal input. In addition to its well-known role in regulating gene expression through its DNA-binding domain, En-2 may also have a role(More)
BACKGROUND Engrailed-1 and Engrailed-2 are homeoproteins--transcription factors implicated in the morphogenesis of discrete structures. Engrailed proteins have a role in patterning the midbrain-hindbrain region and are expressed in the nuclei of rat embryo midbrain-hindbrain cells. We have previously found that both endogenous and exogenously expressed(More)
Engrailed1 (En1) is a homeoprotein transcription factor expressed throughout adulthood in several midbrain cells, including the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Here we report the presence of Engrailed protein and En1 mRNA in proximal dendrites of these neurons and of En1 mRNA in ventral midbrain synaptoneurosomes. We show that the 3'(More)
To identify genes regulated by homeoprotein transcription factors in postnatal neurons, the DNA-binding domain (homeodomain) of Engrailed homeoprotein was internalized into rat cerebellum neurons. The internalized homeodomain (EnHD) acts as a competitive inhibitor of Engrailed and of several homeoproteins (Mainguy et al., 2000). Analysis by differential(More)
The MAP1B (Mtap1b) promoter presents two evolutionary conserved overlapping homeoproteins and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3beta (HNF3beta/Foxa2) cognate binding sites (defining putative homeoprotein/Fox sites, HF1 and HF2). Accordingly, the promoter domain containing HF1 and HF2 is recognized by cerebellum nuclear extracts containing Engrailed and Foxa2 and(More)
We report here that the homeoproteins Engrailed-1 and Engrailed-2 are present in specific non-nuclear subcellular compartments. Using electron microscopy, we observed that chick-Engrailed-2 expressed in COS-7 cells associates with membrane fractions that are characterized as caveolae. This characterization is based on morphological, biochemical and(More)
BACKGROUND Modifications in Pax6 homeogene expression produce strong eye phenotypes. This suggested to us that eye development might be an appropriate model to verify if homeoprotein intercellular passage has important functions in early development. Similar to other homeoproteins, Pax6 has two domains that enable secretion and internalization by live cells(More)
A major issue in regenerative medicine is the role of injury in promoting cell plasticity. Here we explore the function of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced through lesions in adult zebrafish. We show that ROS production, following adult fin amputation, is tightly regulated in time and space for at least 24 hours, whereas ROS production remains(More)
The function of the beta-amyloid protein precursor (betaAPP), a transmembrane molecule involved in Alzheimer pathologies, is poorly understood. We recently reported the presence of a fraction of betaAPP in cholesterol and sphingoglycolipid-enriched microdomains (CSEM), a caveolae-like compartment specialized in signal transduction. To investigate whether(More)