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Insect viruses have evolved strategies to control the host RNAi antiviral defense mechanism. In nature, Drosophila melanogaster C virus (DCV) infection causes low mortality and persistent infection, whereas the closely related cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) causes a lethal infection. We show that these viruses use different strategies to modulate the host(More)
Chicken Engrailed 2 homeoprotein is transported between cells in culture. This intercellular transfer is based on unconventional secretion and internalisation mechanisms: Engrailed 2 has access to vesicles but lacks a signal sequence for secretion and is internalised by a non-endocytic process. We show that phosphorylation of a serine-rich domain within(More)
1. Recent observations showed that a mitochondrial Ca2+ increase is necessary for an NMDA receptor stimulus to be toxic to cortical neurones. In an attempt to determine the magnitude of the Ca2+ fluxes involved in this phenomenon, we used carbonylcyanide-p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP), a mitochondrial proton gradient uncoupler, to release(More)
Multicellular organisms evolved sophisticated defence systems to confer protection against pathogens. An important characteristic of these immune systems is their ability to act both locally at the site of infection and at distal uninfected locations. In insects, such as Drosophila melanogaster, RNA interference (RNAi) mediates antiviral immunity. However,(More)
Figure S1: Sindbis-GFP infection of Drosophila melanogaster. (a) Genome organization of Sindbis-GFP recombinant virus. dsRNA used against two different regions of the nonstructural proteins (dsSin1 and dsSin2) are indicated. (b) Intensities of GFP fluorescence per group of injected flies. Flies in each group were CO2-anesthetized and imaged. Images were(More)
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