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Multicellular organisms evolved sophisticated defence systems to confer protection against pathogens. An important characteristic of these immune systems is their ability to act both locally at the site of infection and at distal uninfected locations. In insects, such as Drosophila melanogaster, RNA interference (RNAi) mediates antiviral immunity. However,(More)
Insect viruses have evolved strategies to control the host RNAi antiviral defense mechanism. In nature, Drosophila melanogaster C virus (DCV) infection causes low mortality and persistent infection, whereas the closely related cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) causes a lethal infection. We show that these viruses use different strategies to modulate the host(More)
In invertebrates such as insects and nematodes, RNA interference (RNAi) provides RNA-based protection against viruses. This form of immunity restricts viral replication and dissemination from infected cells and viruses, in turn, have evolved evasion mechanisms or RNAi suppressors to counteract host defenses. Recent advances indicate that, in addition to(More)
Figure S1: Sindbis-GFP infection of Drosophila melanogaster. (a) Genome organization of Sindbis-GFP recombinant virus. dsRNA used against two different regions of the nonstructural proteins (dsSin1 and dsSin2) are indicated. (b) Intensities of GFP fluorescence per group of injected flies. Flies in each group were CO2-anesthetized and imaged. Images were(More)
Effective antiviral protection in multicellular organisms relies on both cell-autonomous and systemic immunity. Systemic immunity mediates the spread of antiviral signals from infection sites to distant uninfected tissues. In arthropods, RNA interference (RNAi) is responsible for antiviral defense. Here, we show that flies have a sophisticated systemic(More)
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