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Transcriptional activation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes and various drug metabolizing enzymes by the prototypical inducer phenobarbital (PB) and many other drugs and chemicals is an adaptive response of the organism to exposure to xenobiotics. The response to PB is mediated by the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), whereas the(More)
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are transcription factors activated by a multitude of hormones, other endogenous substances, and exogenous molecules. These proteins modulate the regulation of target genes by contacting their promoter or enhancer sequences at specific recognition sites. The identification of these response elements is the first step toward detailed(More)
Our previous studies have suggested a role for AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the induction of CYP2B6 by phenobarbital (PB) in hepatoma-derived cells (Rencurel et al., 2005). In this study, we showed in primary human hepatocytes that: 1) 5'-phosphoribosyl-5-aminoimidazol-4-carboxamide 1-beta-d-ribofuranoside and the biguanide metformin, known(More)
CYP3A4, the most abundant cytochrome P450 in human liver, is responsible for the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics and endobiotics. CYP3A4 expression is highly variable and is induced by numerous compounds of exogenous and endogenous origin, including elevated concentrations of secondary bile acids via the pregnane X receptor (PXR). We show that(More)
OBJECTIVE Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) is a lipogenic transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix family. SREBP-1 binds to sterol regulatory elements (SREs) in the promoter of lipogenic genes and induces fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. Decreased drug clearance has been observed in obese and other dyslipidemic rodents(More)
Activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) by xenobiotic inducers of cytochromes P450 is part of a pleiotropic response that includes liver hypertrophy, tumor promotion, effects on lipid homeostasis, and energy metabolism. Here, we describe an acute response to CAR and PXR activators that is associated with induction(More)
Epilepsy is very often related to strong impairment of neuronal networks, particularly in the hippocampus. Previous studies of brain tissue have demonstrated that long-term administration of the anti-epileptic drug (AED) phenytoin leads to enhanced metabolism of testosterone mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms. Thus, we speculate that AEDs affect(More)
Squalestatin1 (SQ1), a potent inhibitor of squalene synthase produced a dose-dependent induction of cytochromes P450 CYP2H1 and CYP3A37 mRNAs in chicken hepatoma cells. The effect of SQ1 was completely reversed by 25-hydroxycholesterol. Bile acids elicited an induction of CYP3A37 and CYP2H1 mRNA. Bile acids also reduced the phenobarbital induction of CYP2H1(More)
Background: Drugs and other xenobiotics alter gene expression of cytochromes P450 (CYP) by activating the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in mammals. In non-mammalian species, only one xenosensor gene has been found. Using chicken as a model organism, the aim of our study was to elucidate whether non-mammalian species(More)
Heme is an essential component in oxygen transport and metabolism in living systems. In non-erythropoietic cells, 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS1) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the heme biosynthesis pathway. ALAS1 expression and heme levels are increased in vivo by drugs and other chemical inducers of cytochrome P450 hemoproteins through(More)