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The staircase test consists of placing a naive mouse in an enclosed staircase with five steps and observing the number of steps climbed and rearings made in a 3-min period. All the clinically active anxiolytics tested (chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate, diazepam, lorazepam, meprobamate, phenobarbital) reduce rearing at doses which did not reduce the number of(More)
Benzodiazepines are widely used anxiolytics and anticonvulsants, and their potent sedative properties are routinely used in presurgical anaesthesia. However, they are also known to induce a strong anterograde amnesia in patients. Specific benzodiazepine antagonists have recently been described, some of which have intrinsic pharmacological properties that(More)
Endogenous tyrosine concentrations varied two-fold among various rat brain regions, tending to be highest in brain stem structures. Administration of L-tyrosine (100 mg/kg) increased tyrosine concentrations in all brain areas; high relative increases were observed in areas with low initial tyrosine concentrations and vice versa, resulting in a more uniform(More)
In the 1,4-benzodiazepine (BZD) series the nature of the C(5) substituent is critical for activity. In tetrazepam this substituent is a cyclohexenyl ring, in all other clinically effective 1,4-BZD derivatives it is a phenyl ring. The activities of tetrazepam and diazepam, whose chemical structures differ only by the nature of the C(5) substituent, were(More)
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a homeostatic cytokine for resting T cells with increasing serum and tissue levels during T cell depletion. In preclinical studies, IL-7 therapy exerts marked stimulating effects on T cell immune reconstitution in mice and primates. First-in-human clinical studies of recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) provided the opportunity to(More)
The effect of valproic acid and 10 close analogues (7 branched and 3 non-branched) were studied on the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) in mice. All 8 branched fatty acids protected against seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol, but the 3 non-branched acids were inactive. A significant(More)
BACKGROUND The immune deficiency of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is not fully corrected with ARV therapy. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) can boost CD4 T-cell counts, but optimal dosing and mechanisms of cellular increases need to be defined. METHODS We performed a randomized placebo-controlled dose escalation (10, 20 and 30 µg/kg) trial of 3 weekly(More)
The quinolines PK 8165 and PK 9084 bind to brain benzodiazepine receptors in vitro. However, unlike diazepam, these molecules do not reduce GABA turnover, possess anxiolytic properties, or displace [3H]flunitrazepam from benzodiazepine receptors in vivo. The pharmacological properties of PK 8165 and PK 9084 in vivo are thus unrelated to the benzodiazepine(More)
Differential pulse voltammetry has successfully been employed to study either 5-hydroxyindoles, or ascorbic acid and catechols in the brain of anaesthetised or freely moving rats. A new electrochemical pretreatment of pyrolytic carbon-fibre electrodes has been developed, enabling the simultaneous recording of all three compounds in the striatum of(More)
Although treatment with interleukin-7 (IL-7) was shown to transiently expand the naïve and memory T-cell pools in patients with chronic HIV-1 infection receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), it is uncertain whether a full immunologic reconstitution can be achieved. Moreover, the effects of IL-7 have never been evaluated during acute HIV-1 (or SIV)(More)