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Simultaneously measuring the activities of all neurons in a mammalian brain at millisecond resolution is a challenge beyond the limits of existing techniques in neuroscience. Entirely new approaches may be required, motivating an analysis of the fundamental physical constraints on the problem. We outline the physical principles governing brain activity(More)
We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through(More)
We present an implantable flight control microsystem for a cyborg beetle (Fig. 1). The system consists of multiple inserted neural and muscular stimulators, a visual stimulator, a polyimide assembly and a microcontroller. The system is powered by two size 5 cochlear microbatteries. The insect platform is Cotinis texana, a 2 cm long, 1-2 gram Green June(More)
We present the first report of radio control of a cyborg beetle in free-flight. The microsystem (Figs. 1, 2) consisted of a radio-frequency receiver assembly, a micro battery and a live giant flower beetle platform (Mecynorhina polyphemus or Mecynorhina torquata). The assembly had six electrode stimulators implanted into the left and right optic lobes,(More)
We present a miniaturized portable ultrasonic imager that uses a custom ASIC and a piezoelectric transducer array to transmit and capture 2-D sonographs. The ASIC, fabricated in 0.18 μm 32 V CMOS process, contains 7 identical channels, each with high-voltage level-shifters, high-voltage DC-DC converters, digital TX beamformer, and RX front-end. The chip is(More)
The emerging field of bioelectronic medicine seeks methods for deciphering and modulating electrophysiological activity in the body to attain therapeutic effects at target organs. Current approaches to interfacing with peripheral nerves and muscles rely heavily on wires, creating problems for chronic use, while emerging wireless approaches lack the size(More)
We present a miniaturized, free-floating monitoring system which makes use of electron transfer in Shewanella oneidensis sequestered behind a permeable membrane while maintaining diffusive contact with the environment, allowing for sensing environmental conditions. The system makes use of a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) integrated circuit (IC) which sets(More)
A scalable array technology for parametric control of high-throughput cell cultivations is demonstrated. The technology makes use of commercial printed circuit board (PCB) technology, integrated circuit sensors, and an electrochemical gas generation system. We present results for an array of eight 250 microl microbioreactors. Each bioreactor contains an(More)
A major hurdle in brain-machine interfaces (BMI) is the lack of an implantable neural interface system that remains viable for a lifetime. This paper explores the fundamental system design trade-offs and ultimate size, power, and bandwidth scaling limits of neural recording systems built from low-power CMOS circuitry coupled with ultrasonic power delivery(More)