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Two frequent assumptions about the evolution of long-distance migration in birds are that they travel long distances annually to reach food-rich areas for breeding, and that they time their migratory journey to be at staging sites when the latter provide the best feeding conditions. These assumptions have rarely been properly tested, and there is no study(More)
Ecotourism is becoming very popular, especially in protected areas where wildlife concentrate and is easier to observe, but the consequences of associated disturbance have seldom be quantified other than in the short-term, making the sustainability of this activity untested. We combined a historical, an empirical and an experimental approach to assess the(More)
Mate guarding by males is common in species with long-lasting pair bonds. We tested if the need to guard females affected foraging depth in male teal (Anas crecca), and if they were more vigilant than females when foraging with submerged eyes (preventing monitoring of competing males and predators). These predictions were not supported, suggesting that(More)
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