Michel Koenig

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Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive, degenerative disease that involves the central and peripheral nervous systems and the heart. A gene, X25, was identified in the critical region for the FRDA locus on chromosome 9q13. This gene encodes a 210-amino acid protein, frataxin, that has homologs in distant species such as Caenorhabditis elegans(More)
The 14 kb human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cDNA corresponding to a complete representation of the fetal skeletal muscle transcript has been cloned. The DMD transcript is formed by at least 60 exons which have been mapped relative to various reference points within Xp21. The first half of the DMD transcript is formed by a minimum of 33 exons spanning(More)
The complete sequence of the human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cDNA has been determined. The 3685 encoded amino acids of the protein product, dystrophin, can be separated into four domains. The 240 amino acid N-terminal domain has been shown to be conserved with the actin-binding domain of alpha-actinin. A large second domain is predicted to be(More)
Friedreich ataxia is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss of function mutations in the frataxin gene. In order to unravel frataxin function we developed monoclonal antibodies raised against different regions of the protein. These antibodies detect a processed 18 kDa protein in various human and mouse tissues and cell lines that is(More)
Ataxia-ocular apraxia 2 (AOA2) was recently identified as a new autosomal recessive ataxia. We have now identified causative mutations in 15 families, which allows us to clinically define this entity by onset between 10 and 22 years, cerebellar atrophy, axonal sensorimotor neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Ten of the(More)
BACKGROUND Friedreich's ataxia, the most common inherited ataxia, is associated with a mutation that consists of an unstable expansion of GAA repeats in the first intron of the frataxin gene on chromosome 9, which encodes a protein of unknown function. METHODS We studied 187 patients with autosomal recessive ataxia, determined the size of the GAA(More)
We describe oligonucleotide primer sequences that can be used to amplify eight exons plus the muscle promoter of the dystrophin gene in a single multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). When used in conjunction with an existing primer set, these two multiplex reactions detect about 98% of deletions in patients with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy(More)
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), the most common autosomal recessive ataxia, is characterized by degeneration of the large sensory neurons and spinocerebellar tracts, cardiomyopathy and increased incidence in diabetes. FRDA is caused by severely reduced levels of frataxin, a mitochondrial protein of unknown function. Yeast knockout models as well as histological(More)
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a common autosomal recessive degenerative disease (1/50,000 live births) characterized by a progressive gait and limb ataxia with lack of tendon reflexes in the legs, dysarthria and pyramidal weakness of the inferior limbs1,2. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is observed in most FRDA patients. The gene associated with the disease has(More)
Friedreich's ataxia is the most common inherited ataxia. Ninety-six percent of patients are homozygous for GAA trinucleotide repeat expansions in the first intron of the frataxin gene. The remaining cases are compound heterozygotes for a GAA expansion and a frataxin point mutation. We report here the identification of 10 novel frataxin point mutations, and(More)