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— This paper reviews the work carried out in the ACTS KEOPS (Keys to Optical Packet Switching) project, describing the results obtained to date. The main objective of the project is the definition, development, and assessment of optical packet switching and routing networks, capable of providing transparency to the payload bit rate, using optical packets of(More)
Cytidine deaminases of the APOBEC3 family all have specificity for single-stranded DNA, which may become exposed during replication or transcription of double-stranded DNA. Three human APOBEC3A (hA3A), hA3B, and hA3H genes are expressed in keratinocytes and skin, leading us to determine whether genetic editing of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA occurred. In(More)
DNA viruses, retroviruses and hepadnaviruses, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), are vulnerable to genetic editing of single stranded DNA by host cell APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases. At least three A3 genes are up regulated by interferon-alpha in human hepatocytes while ectopic expression of activation induced deaminase (AICDA), an A3 paralog, has been(More)
Two full-length human immunodeficiency virus type 1 O sequences are described, one of which was hypermutated in all regions of the genome. This indicates that the intracellular [dTTP]/[dCTP] bias conducive to G-->A hypermutation may be sustained throughout the synthesis of minus-strand DNA. In turn, this suggests the possibility of mutation of host(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is vulnerable to editing by human cytidine deaminases of the APOBEC3 (A3A-H) family albeit to much lower levels than HIV cDNA. We have analyzed and compared HBV editing by all seven enzymes in a quail cell line that does not produce any endogenous DNA cytidine deaminase activity. Using 3DPCR it was possible to show that all but(More)
To control the quality of genomic DNA of samples from a wide variety of animals, a heminested PCR assay specifically targeting a nuclear gene has been developed. The histone H4 gene family comprises a small number of genes considered among the most conserved genes in living organisms. Tissue samples from necropsies and from cells belonging to 43 different(More)
Retroviruses, hepadnaviruses, and some other retroelements are vulnerable to editing by single stranded DNA cytidine deaminases. Of the eleven human genes encoding such enzymes, eight have demonstrable enzymatic activity. Six of seven human APOBEC3 are able to hyperedit HBV DNA, frequently on both strands. Although human APOBEC1 (hA1) is not generally(More)
DNA complementarity is expressed by way of three hydrogen bonds for a G:C base pair and two for A:T. As a result, careful control of the denaturation temperature of PCR allows selective amplification of AT-rich alleles. Yet for the same reason, the converse is not possible, selective amplification of GC-rich alleles. Inosine (I) hydrogen bonds to cytosine(More)
The APOBEC3 gene cluster encodes six cytidine deaminases (A3A-C, A3DE, A3F-H) with single stranded DNA (ssDNA) substrate specificity. For the moment A3A is the only enzyme that can initiate catabolism of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Human A3A expression is initiated from two different methionine codons M1 or M13, both of which are in adequate but(More)
In France, recent mathematics curricula reinforce the teaching of statistics and probability. They recommend starting with an experimental approach introducing the observation of sampling fluctuations and the construction of random experiment simulations in order to prepare students for theory. This approach raises the problem of the didactical practice of(More)