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— This paper reviews the work carried out in the ACTS KEOPS (Keys to Optical Packet Switching) project, describing the results obtained to date. The main objective of the project is the definition, development, and assessment of optical packet switching and routing networks, capable of providing transparency to the payload bit rate, using optical packets of(More)
The human APOBEC3 (A3A-A3H) locus encodes six cytidine deaminases that edit single-stranded DNA, the result being DNA peppered with uridine. Although several cytidine deaminases are clearly restriction factors for retroviruses and hepadnaviruses, it is not known if APOBEC3 enzymes have roles outside of these settings. It is shown here that both human(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is associated with increased health risk and has been associated with alterations in bacterial gut microbiota, with mainly a reduction in Bacteroidetes, but few data exist at the genus and species level. It has been reported that the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genus representatives may have a critical role in weight regulation as(More)
Cytidine deaminases of the APOBEC3 family all have specificity for single-stranded DNA, which may become exposed during replication or transcription of double-stranded DNA. Three human APOBEC3A (hA3A), hA3B, and hA3H genes are expressed in keratinocytes and skin, leading us to determine whether genetic editing of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA occurred. In(More)
DNA viruses, retroviruses and hepadnaviruses, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), are vulnerable to genetic editing of single stranded DNA by host cell APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases. At least three A3 genes are up regulated by interferon-alpha in human hepatocytes while ectopic expression of activation induced deaminase (AICDA), an A3 paralog, has been(More)
Because the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) proceeds via an obligatory reverse transcription step in the viral capsid, cDNA is potentially vulnerable to editing by cytidine deaminases of the APOBEC3 family. To date only two edited HBV genomes, referred to as G --> A hypermutants, have been described in vivo. Recent work suggested that HBV replication(More)
Very complex mutant libraries of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene encoded by the Escherichia coli plasmid R67 were created using hypermutagenic PCR with biased deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) concentrations. Exploiting the particular stability of the G:T mismatch, the DHFR gene could be enriched in A+T by employing biased deoxypyrimidine(More)
Virus genomes from the same family may exhibit a wide range in their DNA GC content, whereas viral hypermutants differ substantially in GC content from their parental genomes. As AT-rich DNA melts at lower temperatures than GC-rich DNA, use of a lower denaturation temperature during PCR should allow differential amplification of AT-rich genomes or variants(More)
BACKGROUND Genus and species level analysis is the best way to characterize alterations in the human gut microbiota that are associated with obesity, because the clustering of obese and lean microbiotas increases with the taxonomic depth of the analysis. Bifidobacterium genus members have been associated with a lean status, whereas different Lactobacillus(More)