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This paper reviews the work carried out in the ACTS KEOPS (Keys to Optical Packet Switching) project, describing the results obtained to date. The main objective of the project is the definition, development, and assessment of optical packet switching and routing networks, capable of providing transparency to the payload bit rate, using optical packets of(More)
Cytidine deaminases of the APOBEC3 family all have specificity for single-stranded DNA, which may become exposed during replication or transcription of double-stranded DNA. Three human APOBEC3A (hA3A), hA3B, and hA3H genes are expressed in keratinocytes and skin, leading us to determine whether genetic editing of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA occurred. In(More)
PURPOSE To define the long-term outcome of stent placement in iliac and femoropopliteal arteries. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three hundred ten patients received 418 balloon-expandable Palmaz stents. Two hundred thirty stents were implanted in iliac arteries of 184 patients, and 188 stents were implanted in femoropopliteal arteries in 126 patients. Restenosis(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is associated with increased health risk and has been associated with alterations in bacterial gut microbiota, with mainly a reduction in Bacteroidetes, but few data exist at the genus and species level. It has been reported that the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genus representatives may have a critical role in weight regulation as(More)
BACKGROUND Genus and species level analysis is the best way to characterize alterations in the human gut microbiota that are associated with obesity, because the clustering of obese and lean microbiotas increases with the taxonomic depth of the analysis. Bifidobacterium genus members have been associated with a lean status, whereas different Lactobacillus(More)
Because the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) proceeds via an obligatory reverse transcription step in the viral capsid, cDNA is potentially vulnerable to editing by cytidine deaminases of the APOBEC3 family. To date only two edited HBV genomes, referred to as G --> A hypermutants, have been described in vivo. Recent work suggested that HBV replication(More)
DNA viruses, retroviruses and hepadnaviruses, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), are vulnerable to genetic editing of single stranded DNA by host cell APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases. At least three A3 genes are up regulated by interferon-alpha in human hepatocytes while ectopic expression of activation induced deaminase (AICDA), an A3 paralog, has been(More)
Virus genomes from the same family may exhibit a wide range in their DNA GC content, whereas viral hypermutants differ substantially in GC content from their parental genomes. As AT-rich DNA melts at lower temperatures than GC-rich DNA, use of a lower denaturation temperature during PCR should allow differential amplification of AT-rich genomes or variants(More)
The susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) to protease inhibitors (PI) is largely unknown. We studied HIV-2 protease genes from 21 HIV-2-infected patients who were exposed or not exposed to PI. The aim of this study was (i). to characterize the polymorphism of HIV-2 protease in the absence of drug, (ii). to know whether the HIV-2(More)
Very complex mutant libraries of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene encoded by the Escherichia coli plasmid R67 were created using hypermutagenic PCR with biased deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) concentrations. Exploiting the particular stability of the G:T mismatch, the DHFR gene could be enriched in A+T by employing biased deoxypyrimidine(More)