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We have shown that bacterial mutation rates change during the experimental colonization of the mouse gut. A high mutation rate was initially beneficial because it allowed faster adaptation, but this benefit disappeared once adaptation was achieved. Mutator bacteria accumulated mutations that, although neutral in the mouse gut, are often deleterious in(More)
The M6 protein from Streptococcus pyogenes is the best-characterized member of a family of cell envelope-associated proteins. Based on the observation that the C-terminal sorting signals of these proteins can drive cell wall anchoring of heterologous unanchored proteins, we have cloned and expressed the emm6 structural gene for the M6 protein in various(More)
Commensal bacteria often have an especially rich source of glycan-degrading enzymes which allow them to utilize undigested carbohydrates from the food or the host. The species Ruminococcus gnavus is present in the digestive tract of ≥90% of humans and has been implicated in gut-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Here we analysed the(More)
When cultivated in the presence of trypsin, the Ruminococcus gnavus E1 strain, isolated from a human fecal sample, was able to produce an antibacterial substance that accumulated in the supernatant. This substance, called ruminococcin A, was purified to homogeneity by reverse-phase chromatography. It was shown to be a 2,675-Da bacteriocin harboring a(More)
Fourteen bacterial strains capable of producing a trypsin-dependent antimicrobial substance active against Clostridium perfringens were isolated from human fecal samples of various origins (from healthy adults and children, as well as from adults with chronic pouchitis). Identification of these strains showed that they belonged to Ruminococcus gnavus,(More)
We show in a gnotobiotic mouse model that, in addition to direct selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, some antibiotic treatments also select for mutator alleles. Because of these mutator alleles' high mutation rates, the initial treatment failure increases the probability of failures in subsequent treatments with other drugs.
Differential gene expression analysis was performed in monoxenic mice colonized with Ruminococcus gnavus strain E1, a major endogenous member of the gut microbiota. RNA arbitrarily primed-PCR fingerprinting assays allowed to specifically detect the in vivo expression of the aga1 gene, which was further confirmed by RT-PCR. The aga1 gene encoded a protein of(More)
Ruminococcus gnavus belongs to the 57 most common species present in 90% of individuals. Previously, we identified an α-galactosidase (Aga1) belonging to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 36 from R. gnavus E1 (M. Aguilera, H. Rakotoarivonina, A. Brutus, T. Giardina, G. Simon, and M. Fons, Res. Microbiol. 163:14-21, 2012). Here, we identified a novel(More)
This chapter is a descriptive analysis of tourism in Aragon, as a study case of an interior Spanish touristic region. The study shows the tourism profile in Aragon, showing that are some needs in tourism promotion as well as a description presented with latest data that shows the huge amount of natural and cultural/historical resources that can be exploited(More)
Here, we show that a partner-switching system of the aquatic Proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis regulates post-translationally σS (also called RpoS), the general stress response sigma factor. Genes SO2118 and SO2119 encode CrsA and CrsR, respectively. CrsR is a three-domain protein comprising a receiver, a phosphatase, and a kinase/anti-sigma domains,(More)