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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
 Three RFLP maps, as well as several RAPD maps have been developed in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In order to align these maps, a core linkage map was established in the recombinant inbred population BAT93×Jalo EEP558 (BJ). This map has a total length of 1226 cM and comprises 563 markers, including some 120 RFLP and 430 RAPD markers, in addition to(More)
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC genomic sequences were isolated from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genomic libraries using elicitor-induced bean PAL cDNA sequences as a probe. Southern blot hybridization of genomic DNA fragments revealed three divergent classes of PAL genes in the bean genome. Polymorphic forms were observed within each class.(More)
The two homologous genes for the P700 chlorophyll a-apoproteins (ps1A1 and ps1A2) are encoded by the plastom in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardii. The structure and organization of the two genes were determined by comparison with the homologous genes from maize using data from heterologous hybridizations as well as from DNA and RNA sequencing. While(More)
Bean nuclear extracts were used in gel retardation assays and DNase I footprinting experiments to identify a protein factor, designated SBF-1, that specifically interacts with regulatory sequences in the promoter of the bean defense gene CHS15, which encodes the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone synthase. SBF-1 binds to three short sequences designated(More)
Higher plants contain a multigene family encoding proteins that share a highly conserved catalytic protein kinase domain about 70% identical to SHAGGY protein kinase (SGG) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), respectively, from Drosophila and mammals. In this study we have characterized the structure and evolution of the Arabidopsis SHAGGY-related(More)
A 1.1-kilobase promoter fragment of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC gene PAL2 was translationally fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and transferred to tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated leaf disk transformation. The distribution of beta-glucuronidase activity in these transgenic plants is very(More)
To define genes associated with or responsible for the neurodegenerative changes observed in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, we analyzed gene expression in scrapie-infected mouse brain using "mRNA differential display." The RNA transcripts of eight genes were increased 3-8-fold in the brains of scrapie-infected animals. Five of these genes have(More)
Anthracnose, caused by the fungusColletotrichum lindemuthianum, is a severe disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) controlled, in Europe, by a single dominant gene,Are. Four pairs of near-isogenic lines (NILs) were constructed, in which theAre gene was introgressed into different genetic backgrounds. These pairs of NILs were used to search for DNA(More)