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To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
The biofilm formation capacity of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates is considered an important virulence factor for the establishment of chronic infections. Environmental conditions affect the biofilm formation capacity of S. aureus, indicating the existence of positive and negative regulators of the process. The majority of the screening procedures(More)
A new gene, bkdR (formerly called yqiR), encoding a regulator with a central (catalytic) domain was found in Bacillus subtilis. This gene controls the utilization of isoleucine and valine as sole nitrogen sources. Seven genes, previously called yqiS, yqiT, yqiU, yqiV, bfmBAA, bfmBAB, and bfmBB and now referred to as ptb, bcd, buk, lpd, bkdA1, bkdA2, and(More)
The GraS/GraR two-component system has been shown to control cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance in the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. We demonstrated that graX, also involved in CAMP resistance and cotranscribed with graRS, encodes a regulatory cofactor of the GraSR signaling pathway, effectively constituting a three-component(More)
To gain insight into the mode of action of mesentericin Y105, a bacteriocin bactericidal agent against Listeria monocytogenes, we undertook to identify the listerial factors mediating this susceptibility by using a genetic approach. Transposon mutants resistant to the bacteriocin were obtained. One of them corresponded to a transposon insertion in a gene(More)
Although sigma factor-dependent transcriptional regulation was shown to be essential for adaptation to different environmental stimuli, no such sigma factor has been related to the regulation of the cold shock response in Bacillus subtilis. In this study, we present genetic evidence for participation of sigma(L) (sigma(54)) and the two sigma(L)-dependent(More)
As a soil bacterium also found in estuarine and marine habitats, Bacillus subtilis has evolved various sensing and adaptation systems in order to face salt stress conditions. Among these regulatory mechanisms is the DegS-DegU signal transduction system, which was previously shown to be stimulated by high salt concentrations. A search for promoters regulated(More)
EfeUOB-like tripartite systems are widespread in bacteria and in many cases they are encoded by genes organized into iron-regulated operons. They consist of: EfeU, a protein similar to the yeast iron permease Ftrp1; EfeO, an extracytoplasmic protein of unknown function and EfeB, also an extracytoplasmic protein with heme peroxidase activity, belonging to(More)
In Bacillus subtilis, expression of the rocG gene, encoding glutamate dehydrogenase, and the rocABC operon, involved in arginine catabolism, requires SigL (sigma(54))-containing RNA polymerase as well as RocR, a positive regulator of the NtrC/NifA family. The RocR protein was purified and shown to bind specifically to the intergenic region located between(More)