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Proproteins and prohormones are the fundamental units from which bioactive proteins and peptides as well as neuropeptides are derived by limited proteolysis within the secretory pathway. Precursors are usually cleaved at the general motif (K/R)--(X)n--(K/R)down arrow, where n=0, 2, 4 or 6 and X is any amino acid and usually is not a Cys. Seven mammalian(More)
The discovery of autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemic patients with mutations in the PCSK9 gene, encoding the proprotein convertase NARC-1, resulting in the missense mutations suggested a role in low density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism. We show that the endoplasmic reticulum-localized proNARC-1 to NARC-1 zymogen conversion is Ca2+-independent and that(More)
Using a 796-basepair cDNA fragment obtained from a mouse pituitary library we have screened two mouse insulinoma libraries and isolated a full-length cDNA clone (2516 basepairs; 753 amino acids), designated mPC1. The cDNA sequence of mPC1 codes for a protein containing 753 amino acids and three potential N-glycosylation sites. This cDNA encodes a putative(More)
A recombinant vaccinia virus vector was used to coexpress the two candidate mouse prohormone convertases, PC1 and PC2, together with mouse proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the constitutively secreting cell line BSC-40 and in the endocrine tissue-derived cell lines PC12 and AtT-20, which exhibit regulated secretion. Monitoring of POMC processing demonstrated(More)
Six mammalian processing enzymes were recently discovered which exhibit significant similarities to both yeast kexin and bacterial subtilisins. These subtilisin/kexin-like convertases were called furin/PACE, PC1/PC3, PC2, PACE4, PC4 and PC5/PC6. The analysis of the mRNA expression of these convertases in rat tissues and cell lines by Northern blot analysis(More)
In order to define the enzymes responsible for the maturation of the precursors of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (proNT3), we have analysed their biosynthesis and intracellular processing by the proprotein convertases furin, PC1, PC2, PACE4, PC5 and its isoform PC5/6-B. In these studies, we utilized a vaccinia virus(More)
Based on the concept of sequence conservation around the active sites of serine proteinases, polymerase chain reaction applied to mRNA amplification allowed us to obtain a 260-bp probe which was used to screen a mouse pituitary cDNA library. The primers used derived from the cDNA sequence of active sites Ser* and Asn* of human furin. Two cDNA sequences were(More)
In order to define the enzymes responsible for the maturation of the precursor of nerve growth factor (proNGF), its biosynthesis and intracellular processing by the pro-protein convertases furin, PC1, PC2, PACE4, PC5 and the PC5 isoform PC5/6-B were analysed using the vaccinia virus expression system in cells containing a regulated and/or a constitutive(More)
The physiological role of the subtilisin/kexin-like proprotein convertases (PCs) in rodents has been examined through the use of knockout mice. This review will summarize the major in vivo defects that result from the disruption of the expression of their genes. This includes abnormal embryonic development, hormonal disorder, infertility, and/or modified(More)
All proprotein convertases (PCs) of the subtilisin/kexin family contain an N-terminal prosegment that is presumed to act both as an intramolecular chaperone and an inhibitor of its parent enzyme. In this work, we examined inhibition by purified, recombinant bacterial prosegments of furin and PC7 on the in vitro processing of either the fluorogenic peptide(More)