Michel C. Nussenzweig

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Germ cell fate in mice is induced in pluripotent epiblast cells in response to signals from extraembryonic tissues. The specification of approximately 40 founder primordial germ cells and their segregation from somatic neighbours are important events in early development. We have proposed that a critical event during this specification includes repression(More)
Defective DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) is thought to be a major contributor to tumorigenesis in individuals carrying Brca1 mutations. Here, we show that DNA breaks in Brca1-deficient cells are aberrantly joined into complex chromosome rearrangements by a process dependent on the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) factors 53BP1 and DNA ligase 4.(More)
Higher order chromatin structure presents a barrier to the recognition and repair of DNA damage. Double-strand breaks (DSBs) induce histone H2AX phosphorylation, which is associated with the recruitment of repair factors to damaged DNA. To help clarify the physiological role of H2AX, we targeted H2AX in mice. Although H2AX is not essential for(More)
During HIV-1 infection, antibodies are generated against the region of the viral gp120 envelope glycoprotein that binds CD4, the primary receptor for HIV-1. Among these antibodies, VRC01 achieves broad neutralization of diverse viral strains. We determined the crystal structure of VRC01 in complex with a human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 gp120 core. VRC01(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) in lymphoid tissue arise from precursors that also produce monocytes and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). Where DC and monocyte lineage commitment occurs and the nature of the DC precursor that migrates from the bone marrow to peripheral lymphoid organs are unknown. We show that DC development progresses from the macrophage and DC precursor to(More)
Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies can prevent infection, which suggests that vaccines that elicit such antibodies would be protective. Thus far, however, few broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies that occur naturally have been characterized. To determine whether these antibodies are part of a larger group of related molecules, we cloned(More)
At close hand to one's genomic material are the histones that make up the nucleosome. Standing guard, one variant stays hidden doubling as one of the core histones. But, thanks to its prime positioning, a variation in the tail of H2AX enables rapid modification of the histone code in response to DNA damage. A role for H2AX phosphorylation has been(More)
CX(3)CR1(+) and CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in intestinal lamina propria play a key role in mucosal immunity. However, the origin and the developmental pathways that regulate their differentiation in the lamina propria remain unclear. We showed that monocytes gave rise exclusively to CD103(-)CX(3)CR1(+) lamina propria DCs under the control of(More)
To identify endocytic receptors that allow dendritic cells (DCs) to capture and present antigens on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I products in vivo, we evaluated DEC-205, which is abundant on DCs in lymphoid tissues. Ovalbumin (OVA) protein, when chemically coupled to monoclonal alphaDEC-205 antibody, was presented by CD11c+ lymph node DCs,(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) have several functions in innate and adaptive immunity. In addition, there is increasing evidence that DCs in situ induce antigen-specific unresponsiveness or tolerance in central lymphoid organs and in the periphery. In the thymus DCs generate tolerance by deleting self-reactive T cells. In peripheral lymphoid organs DCs also induce(More)