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Bacillus thuringiensis has been widely used for 40 years as a safe biopesticide for controlling agricultural pests and mosquitoes because it produces insecticidal crystal proteins. However, spores have also been shown to contribute to overall entomopathogenicity. Here, the opportunistic properties of acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis Cry(-) and Bacillus(More)
Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis (IHHN) is one of the most important viral diseases of cultured penaeid shrimps and is potentially a limiting factor in the development of farming projects for some species of these shrimps. Although the IHHN agent was recognized early as being viral in origin, attempts to characterize it were inconclusive(More)
Eggs of an immune suppressive strain (= virulent) of the parasitoid Leptopilina boulardi are encapsulated neither in resistant nor in susceptible strains of Drosophila melanogaster but are encapsulated in Drosophila yakuba. Eggs of a nonimmune suppressive strain (= avirulent) of the same parasitoid are encapsulated in a resistant strain of D. melanogaster(More)
Classification of insect larvae circulating haemocytes is the subject of controversy, and the terminology used to designate each cellular type is often different from one species to another. However, a survey of the literature on insect haemocytes suggests that there are resemblances for most of the cell types and functions, in different insect species. In(More)
Xenorhabdus nematophila, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae, kills many species of insects by strongly depressing the immune system and colonizing the entire body. A peptide cytotoxin has been purified from X. nematophila broth growth, and the cytolytic effect on insect immunocytes and hemolytic effect on mammalian red blood cells of this toxin have been(More)
Bacteria of the genus Xenorhabdus are mutually associated with entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Steinernema and are pathogenic to a broad spectrum of insects. The nematodes act as vectors, transmitting the bacteria to insect larvae, which die within a few days of infection. We characterized the early stages of bacterial infection in the insects by(More)
The Eucoilid parasitoid Leptopilina boulardi is able to suppress its host Drosophila melanogaster immune reaction. Some strains, however, are non-immune suppressive to that host. Virus-like particles (VLPs) responsible for the immune suppressive ability were investigated in different strains of L. boulardi with histochemical and ultrastructural techniques.(More)
The disturbance of plasma membrane carbohydrates and of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ligands in relation to cytoskeletal transformations of haemocytes has been investigated after chronic exposure of pond snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) to the peroxidizing toxicant fomesafen. Neither of the two lectins used (concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin) showed any(More)
Photorhabdus is an entomopathogenic bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae. The genome of the TT01 strain of Photorhabdus luminescens was recently sequenced and a large number of toxin-encoding genes were found. Genomic analysis predicted the presence on the chromosome of genes encoding a type three secretion system (TTSS), the main role of which is(More)
Induction by mitomycin or high-temperature treatment resulted in the production of bacteriocins and phages in both phases of Xenorhabdus nematophilus A24, indicating lysogeny. Phage DNA purified from X. nematophilus A24 hybridized to several fragments of DraI-digested A24 chromosomal DNA, confirming that the phage genome was incorporated into the bacterial(More)