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BACKGROUND Insertion Sequence (IS) elements are mobile genetic elements widely distributed among bacteria. Their activities cause mutations, promoting genetic diversity and sometimes adaptation. Previous studies have examined their copy number and distribution in Escherichia coli K-12 and natural isolates. Here, we map most of the IS elements in E. coli B(More)
As part of a long-term evolution experiment, two populations of Escherichia coli B adapted to a glucose minimal medium for 10,000 generations. In both populations, multiple IS-associated mutations arose that then went to fixation. We identify the affected genetic loci and characterize the molecular events that produced nine of these mutations. All nine were(More)
An analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using eight residential insertion sequence (IS) elements as hybridization probes reveals that the genome of resting bacteria is more dynamic than it was long believed. Escherichia coli strains stored in agar stabs for up to 30 yr accumulate a genetic variation which is correlated to time of(More)
The loss of preexisting genes or gene activities during evolution is a major mechanism of ecological specialization. Evolutionary processes that can account for gene loss or inactivation have so far been restricted to one of two mechanisms: direct selection for the loss of gene activities that are disadvantageous under the conditions of selection (i.e.,(More)
A stochastic model was designed to describe the evolution of bacterial cultures during 10,000 generations. It is based on a decreasing law for the generation of beneficial mutations as they become fixed in the genomes. Seven beneficial mutations on average were necessary to improve the relative fitness from 1.0 to 1.43 and the model was consistent with the(More)
Transposition of insertion sequences (IS) is an enzyme-mediated process that only occurs in a minority of cells within a bacterial culture. Transposition is thus a rare event, but transposition frequency may vary depending on experimental conditions. For instance in a rich broth, IS elements are known to transpose during stationary phase but not during(More)
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