Michel Azarian

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Presented is a simple model that can be used to accurately predict the level of reference spurs due to charge pump and/or op-amp leakage current in a PLL system. Knowing how to predict these levels helps pick loop parameters wisely during the early stages of a PLL system design. Quick Review of PLLs The phase locked loop (PLL) is a negative feedback system(More)
The VCO output is compared to the reference clock (the OCXO output here) after both signals are divided down in frequency by their respective integer dividers (N and R, respectively). The PFD block controls the charge pump to sink or source current pulses at the fPFD rate into the loop filter to adjust the voltage on the tuning port of the VCO (V_TUNE)(More)
This paper presents a method for achieving increased resolution in Nyquist-rate DA converters, by using techniques from over-sampling DA converters. After characterizing the linearity errors of the DA converter, we use a software implementation of the method to pre-distort the digital code before sending it to the converter. The conversion of the(More)
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