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The evolution of the brain in mammals has been accompanied by a progressive enlargement of the cerebral cortex. Allometric analysis of the volume, surface and convolutedness of this cortex shows that among mammals two major groups can be distinguished: (1) species with lissencephalic brains, where surface-volume relationships are determined by linear(More)
Transsexuals have the strong feeling, often from childhood onwards, of having been born the wrong sex. The possible psychogenic or biological aetiology of transsexuality has been the subject of debate for many years. Here we show that the volume of the central subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BSTc), a brain area that is essential for(More)
The geometry of the brain and cerebral cortex in mammals has been studied from an evolutionary perspective and is described in mathematical terms. The volume of the cerebral cortex, in contrast to the cortical surface area, scales to brain volume in a similar way, irrespective of the degree of cortical folding. Among mammals, Cetacea form a subgroup, in(More)
The evolution of the brain in mammals is characterized by an overall size increase and structural reorganization. Consequently, the brain's geometry has changed notably since the late Cretaceous. Here I show that the mammalian brain is a fractal structure, the dimensions of which can be described in mathematical terms. Application of the scaling principle(More)
Total cell numbers in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were previously shown to remain unaltered with aging and in AD. The aim of the present study was to determine the aging pattern of the oxytocin (OXT) cell population in the PVN. For this purpose, the number of immunocytochemically identified oxytocin cells was determined in the PVN of the human(More)
A new index of encephalization has been proposed based on a reanalysis of the brain-body weight relationship in mammals. The new index, c, is related to the volume of the whole brain as well as to the surface and volume of the cerebral cortex. From an evolutionary point of view the index-cortex relationship is particularly interesting, since the structure(More)
The physiological effects of vasopressin as a peripheral hormone were first reported more than 100 years ago. However, it was not until the first immunocytochemical studies were carried out in the early 1970s, using vasopressin antibodies, and the discovery of an extensive distribution of vasopressin-containing fibres outside the hypothalamus, that a(More)
Morphometric analysis of the human hypothalamus revealed that the volume of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in homosexual men is 1.7 times as large as that of a reference group of male subjects and contains 2.1 times as many cells. In another hypothalamic nucleus which is located in the immediate vicinity of the SCN, the sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN),(More)
Circadian rhythm disturbances are frequently present in Alzheimer disease (AD). In the present study, we investigated the expression of vasopressin (AVP) mRNA in the human suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The in situ hybridization procedure on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material was improved to such a degree that we could, for the first time, visualize(More)